Object Oriented Tools¶
canlab_dataset¶

@canlab_dataset.
bars
(obj, varnames, varargin)¶ Bar plot for canlab_dataset object
Usage: [dat, descrip, colors, h1, s1] = bars(obj, varnames, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  obj:
canlab_dataset object
 varnames:
Cell string of variable names to plot
Optional Inputs:  colors:
defined colors (default are set by scn_standard_colors.m)
 nofig:
do not generate figure
Takes any optional inputs to barplot_colored.m
Outputs:  dat:
data matrix for each variable
 descrip:
the description for this variable
 colors:
selected colors (default are set by scn_standard_colors.m)
 h1:
figure handle
 s1:
axis handle
Examples: create_figure('NPS values  All subjects'); varnames = {'15' '13' '11' ' 9' '16' '14' '12' '10'}; xvals = [1 2 4 5 8 9 11 12]; colors = {[1 0 0] [0 1 0] [1 0 0] [0 1 0] [1 0 0] [0 1 0] [1 0 0] [0 1 0]}; bars(LevoNPS, varnames, 'x', xvals, 'colors', colors, 'XTickLabels', varnames, 'within', 'nofig');

@canlab_dataset.
concatenate
(D, varargin)¶ Concatenates Subjectlevel and Eventlevel data across all subjects
Usage: [names ids dat] = concatenate(D, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  D:
canlab_dataset object
Optional Inputs:  a logical array
a vector of 1/0 values to use as wh_keep
Outputs:  names:
cell array of variable names
 ids:
subject IDs matching data rows in dat
 dat:
 subjects*events x variables matrix
 subject number, event number are included
 all subjectlevel and eventlevel data are included
 this format appropriate for, e.g., SAS/HLM
 descrips:
cell array of variable descriptions
Examples: [names, ids, flatdat] = concatenate(D); id_numbers = flatdat(:, 1); wh_subjs = true(size(D.Subj_Level.id)); wh_subjs([13 18 19]) = false; [names, ids, dat] = concatenate(D, wh_subjs);

@canlab_dataset.
get_var
(D, varname, varargin)¶ Get Subjectlevel or Eventlevel variable from dataset D and return in rect matrix and cell array. Multiple variables can be requested, but all data requested must be either numeric or text, and not a combination of the two.
Usage: [dat, datcell, wh_level, descrip] = get_var(D, varname, [opt inputs])
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
 varname:
 the name of a variable to get from dataset
 Looks for var name at either level, returns error if exists at both levels
 can be a cell array of multiple var names in this case, dat is a n x m matrix, where n=subjs and m=variables requested
Optional inputs: a logical array vector of 1/0 values to use as wh_keep
 conditional:
to be followed by a cell array; the first cell is the name of the variable to be conditionally selected upon, the second cell contains the condition which must be met. Example: get_var(D, ‘DeltaDon’, ‘conditional’, {‘trained’ 1}) will get DeltaDon whenever trained==1. Currently only implemented for eventlevel data. Could be expanded to include multiple conditions.
Outputs:  dat:
rect matrix of subjects X events (X variables)
 good for plotting individuals, means/std. errors across subjects
 is actually a cell matrix if textual data is requested.
 datcell:
1 x subjects cell array, each cell containing event data for one subject
 good for input into some stats functions, e.g., glmfit_multilevel and igls.m
 wh_level:
1 = ‘Subject’; 2 = ‘Event’;
 descrip:
the description for this variable

@canlab_dataset.
glm
(D, Yvarname, Xvarnames, wh_keep)¶ predict Y from X using GLM
Usage: out = glm(D, Yvarname, Xvarnames, wh_keep)
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
 Yvarname:
the name of a variable to predict. must be subject level
 Xvarnames:
the name(s) of predictor variables. if multiple, put in cell array. must be subject_level
 wh_keep:
a logical vector of 1/0 values
Outputs:  out:
structure containing same output as for glmfit() out.b: a vector of coefficient estimates out.dev: the deviance of the fit out.stat: see glmfit documentation for stat structure fields
Examples: out = glm(D, 'DeltaDon_avg', prednames, wh_keep)

@canlab_dataset.
glm_multilevel
(D, Yvarname, Xvarnames, wh_keep)¶ Predict Y from X using GLM
Usage: [b, dev, stat] = glm_multilevel(D, Yvarname, Xvarnames, wh_keep)
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
 Yvarname:
the name of a variable to predict. must be event level
 Xvarnames:
the name(s) of predictor variables. if multiple, put in cell array. must be event level
 wh_keep:
a logical vector of 1/0 values
Outputs:  b:
a vector of coefficient estimates (same as for glmfit())
 dev:
the deviance of the fit (same as for glmfit())
 stat:
structure containing stats fields (see glmfit() documentation)

@canlab_dataset.
histogram
(D, varargin)¶  Histogram of one variable in dataset
 can be either eventlevel or subjectlevel
 eventlevel data is plotted as concatenated events across subjectlevel
 both variables must be valid names (casesensitive)
Usage: fig_han = histogram(D, [optional inputs]);
Inputs:  D:
canlab_dataset
Optional Inputs: **nofig’: suppress creation of new figure
Outputs:  fig_han:
figure handle

@canlab_dataset.
mediation
(D, xvarname, yvarname, mvarname, varargin)¶ Run single or multilevel mediation analysis on a canlab_dataset object. Calls mediation.m (see mediation.m) in mediation toolbox
Usage: [paths, stats] = mediation(D, xvarname, yvarname, mvarname, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  D:
is a canlab_dataset object
 xvarname:
X, the initial variable (valid variable name in the dataset)
 yvarname:
Y, the outcome variable (valid variable name in the dataset)
 mvarname:
M, the potential mediator ((valid variable name in the dataset)
Optional Inputs: Takes any optional inputs to mediation.m e.g., ‘noverbose’, ‘dosave’, ‘names’, ‘M’, ‘L2M’, ‘covs’, others
 wh_keep:
 followed by 1/0 vector of subjects to keep.
 must be same length as subjects
 subjects with value 0 will be excluded
 rankdata:
ranks all data before mediation; “Nonparametric”
Outputs:  paths:
see mediation.m from mediation toolbox
 stats:
see mediation.m from mediation toolbox
Examples: [paths, stats] = mediation(D, 'Group', 'DeltaDon', 'DeltaDist', 'M2', 'DeltaTend', 'wh_keep', wh_keep);

@canlab_dataset.
plot_var
(D, varname, varargin)¶ Plot the mean and standard error of a variable across events.
Usage: [meandat, stedat] = plot_var(D, varname, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
 varname:
 the name of a valid variable to get from dataset
Looks for var name at either level, returns Event level if exists at both levels
Optional inputs:  subjtype:
 followed by name of grouping variable
 must be categorical subjectlevel variable
 if entered, plot lines or bars based on these categories
 ‘eventmeans’ will plot bars; without, it will plot line plots across events with standard error shading
 the grouping variable’s description, if it exists, will be split along commas, and those values will be used as column lables
 eventmeans:
 calculate and plot subject means across eventlevel variables
 if entered, will plot bar plots of means by condition
 wh_keep:
 followed by 1/0 vector of subjects to keep.
 must be same length as subjects
 subjects with value 0 will be excluded
 color:
followed by one color for all bars, or cell array with names of colors cell for each line/bar
 nofig:
don’t make a new figure
 other:
other varargin are passed directly to barplot_columns. So for example, ‘95CI’ will make 95% confidence interals, instead of SE bars.
Outputs:  meandat:
mean values
 stedat:
standard error values
Examples: plot_var(D, 'Frustration') plot_var(D, 'RT') plot_var(D, 'RT', 'eventmeans'); plot_var(D, 'RT', 'subjtype', 'Placebo'); plot_var(D, 'RT', 'eventmeans', 'subjtype', 'Placebo'); plot_var(D, 'RT', 'eventmeans', 'subjtype', 'Placebo', 'color', {'r' 'b'});

@canlab_dataset.
print_summary
(D, varargin)¶ Prints summaries for every variable, or specified variables
Usage: print_summary(D, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
Optional Inputs:  subj:
followed by a cell array of subject level var names, to only see those vars
 event:
followed by a cell array of event level var names, to only see those vars
if either varargin is unspecified, all variables will be printed

@canlab_dataset.
read_from_excel
(dat, ExperimentFileName, SubjectFileList, varargin)¶ Read from datafile into canlab_dataset format  currently requires file extensions .xls or .xlsx, but in the future will use importdata to take .csv or .txt extensions as well.
 Datafiles require column headers
 Design file requires: id, names, units, descrip
other columns can be added
 ONLY between subject columns identified in the ‘names’
column are added.
 See Sample_canlab_dataset_experiment_level.xlsx for an
example design file
 Subject files require no specific column headers, but all column
headers must be identical across all subjects.  Enter NaN for data field in file if no value for that column within a specific Event  ALL columns of subject files are written to canlab_dataset
Usage: dat = read_from_excel(dat, ExperimentFileName, SubjectFileList, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  dat:
a canlab_dataset object
 ExperimentFileName:
the absolute path of the experiment data file
 SubjectFileList:
 list of absolute paths for individual subject files
 plays well with filenames()
Optional Inputs:  fmri:
Indicates construction of canlab_dataset object using ‘fmri’ code. Suppresses overwrite warnings specific to ‘fmri’ inputs.
Outputs:  dat:
canlab_dataset object with uploaded values
Examples: % To output a file into a raw fmri dataset DesignFile = fullfile(pwd,'Sample_canlab_dataset_experiment_level.xlsx'); SubjectFiles = filenames(fullfile(pwd,'Sample_canlab_dataset_subject*.xlsx')); dat = canlab_dataset('fmri'); dat = read_from_excel(dat,DesignFile,SubjectFiles,'fmri');

@canlab_dataset.
scattermatrix
(D, wh_level, wh_vars)¶ Scatterplot matrix of pairwise eventlevel variables
Usage: fig_han = scattermatrix(D, wh_level, wh_vars)
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
 wh_level:
1 (Subject) or 2 (Event)
Outputs:  fig_han:
figure handle
Examples: fig_han = scattermatrix(D); wh = [5:9]; fig_han = scattermatrix(D, 2, wh); f = scattermatrix(D, 2, {'Choice' 'RT' 'Pain' 'SwitchNext' 'Frustration' 'Anxiety' 'Control'});

@canlab_dataset.
scatterplot
(D, v1, v2, varargin)¶  Scatterplot of two variables in dataset
 can be either eventlevel or subjectlevel
 eventlevel data is plotted as multiline plot, one line per subject
 both variables must be valid names (casesensitive)
Usage: fig_han = scatterplot(D, varname1, varname2, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
 v1:
x variable
 v2:
y variable
Optional Inputs:  nofig:
suppress creation of new figure
 subjtype:
group by the following variable name
 wh_keep:
followed by logical
 colors:
followed by colors.
 dorobust:
do robust corr. if enabled, colors will not work and subjtype grouping will not work well until the function plot_correlation_samefig is updated, at some point in the future.
Outputs:  fig_han:
figure handle
Examples: scatterplot(D, 'Anxiety', 'Frustration'); fig_han = scatterplot(D, D.Subj_Level.names{1}, D.Subj_Level.names{2}); scatterplot(D, D.Event_Level.names{1}, D.Event_Level.names{2});

@canlab_dataset.
spm2canlab_dataset
(obj, subject, spm)¶ Extract Event_Level data from subjects’ SPM.mat files to add data to canlab_dataset object.
Usage: obj = spm2canlab_dataset(obj, subject, spm)
Inputs:  obj:
Canlab_dataset object (see canlab_dataset)
 subject:
Subject list (it could be one subject [in a string format], or it could be multiple subjects in cell array)
 spm:
This could be loaded SPM (struct), or one path for one subject’s SPM.mat file (string), or multiple loaded SPM or paths in cell array
Outputs:  obj:
Canlab_dataset object with new data
Examples: subj = {'dpsp002','dpsp003'}; spm = {'dpsp002_SPM.mat', 'dpsp003_SPM.mat'}; D = canlab_dataset; % if D doesn't exist yet D = spm2canlab_dataset(D, subj, spm);
See also: canlab_dataset spm_mat2batchinput

@canlab_dataset.
ttest2
(D, varname, wh_keep1, wh_keep2, varargin)¶ Two sample ttest for two samples of one subjectlevel variable
Usage: ttest2(D, varname, wh_keep1, wh_keep2, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
 varname:
the name of a valid variable to get from dataset
 wh_keep1:
subjects forming first sample
 wh_keep2:
subjects forming second sample
Optional Inputs:  noverbose:
will suppress print out of results and bargraph
 varargin:
other variables passed directly to MATLAB’s ttest2
Outputs: same as MATLAB’s ttest2 output

@canlab_dataset.
write_text
(D, varargin)¶ “Flatten” dataset and write text files with header and data For all Eventlevel and Subjectlevel data. Files are created in the current working directory.
Usage: function [headername, dataname, fid] = write_text(D, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  D:
a canlab_dataset object
Optional Inputs: the first varargin parameter is the delimiter. Commadelimited by default.
Outputs:  headername:
filename of header output file
 dataname:
filename of data output file
 fid:
file ID (currently does not look to be used)
fmri_data¶

@fmri_data.
canlab_connectivity_preproc
(dat, varargin)¶ This function prepares data for connectivity analysis by removing nuisance variables and temporal filtering (high, low, or bandpass filter). This also can extract values from given masks and return averaged activity or pattern expression values.
Usage: [preprocessed_dat, roi_val] = canlab_connectivity_preproc(dat, varargin)
Features:  can regress out nuisance variables with any additional nuisance matrix
 can remove signal from ventricle and white matter (calls canlab_extract_ventricle_wm_timeseries.m and canlab_create_wm_ventricle_masks.m)
 can do temporal filtering, including highpass, lowpass, or bandpass filtering (it uses conn_filter.m from conn toolbox; see subfunction below)
 can extract data from given ROIs, and return averaged value or pattern expression value (dotproduct).
 Steps in order [with defaults]:
 Remove nuisance covariates (and linear trend if requested)
 Remove ventricle and white matter  needs structural images
 Windsorize based on distribution of full data matrix
 High/low/bandpass filter
 Extract regionbyregion average ROI or pattern expression data
Inputs:  dat:
fmri_data object with data
 dat.covariate:
basic nuisance matrix
Optional Inputs:  additional_nuisance
When you have additional nuisance variables that you want regress out from the data, you can use this option. This option should be followed by a nuisance matrix (or values). The matrix should have the same number of rows with the number of images.
 vw
When you want to regress out signals from ventricle and white matter, you can use this option. To use this option, You should provide the directory where the subjects’ data are saved using the ‘datdir’ (for example, see below). Requires specific subdirectory structure (CANlab)  see code.
You can also choose what to use to remove ventricle and white matter signal between raw data or top 5 PCA components (default). You can just put ‘raw’ if you want to use raw signal than PCA compoenents. also see: canlab_extract_ventricle_wm_timeseries.m canlab_create_wm_ventricle_masks.m)  Example: ‘vw’, ‘datdir’, subject_dir, ‘raw’
 windsorize:
Windsorizing entire data matrix to k x STD.  Example: ‘windsorize’, 5 (windsorize to 5 STD)
 linear_trend:
This option will include the linear trend to nuisance variables.
 hpf’, ‘lpf’, or ‘bpf:
This option will do temporal filtering.  ‘hpf’: high pass filter. This option should be followed by
the lower bound of the frequency (e.g., .01 Hz [= 100 sec]).
 ‘lpf’: low pass filter. This option should be followed by
the upper bound of the frequency (e.g., .25 Hz [= 4 sec]).
 ‘bpf’: bandpass filter. This should be followed by lower
and upper bounds of the frequency (e.g., [.01 .25]). After the frequency value, you need to provide TR.
 Example: ‘hpf’, .01, TR
‘bpf’, [.01 .25], TR
 extract_roi:
This option will extract data from ROIs specified. This option should be followed by one or more masks. For one mask (potentially multiple ROIs, enter a char array with the mask name. For multiple masks (1 or more), enter in a cell array of mask names. You can specify methods with ‘roi_methods’ option.  ‘average_over’ (default): calculate averaged value across the ROIs.  ‘pattern_expression’: calculate dotproducts between
pattern mask and data
 ‘unique_mask_values’ (default): will divide a mask into
multiple regions that have different discrete values.
 ‘contiguous_regions’: will divide a mask into multiple
contiguous regions.
 ‘whole’: will do average_over or pattern_expression across
all the voxels within the mask.
 Example: ‘extract_roi’, mask, ‘contiguous_regions’
‘extract_roi’, mask, ‘pattern_expression’
 no_preproc:
If you want to skip the preprocessing part, and want to extract ROI values only, you can use this option.
Outputs:  preprocessed_dat:
fmri_data object after removing nuisance variables and filtering temporal confounds.
 roi_val:
returns values extracted from ROIs in cell arrays (if there are many different ROIs). Each cell will have roi_val.dat, roi_val.mask_name, and roi_val.methods.
Examples: roi_masks = which('weights_NSF_grouppred_cvpcr.img'); [preprocessed_dat, roi_val] = canlab_connectivity_preproc(dat, 'vw', 'datdir', subject_dir, 'bpf', [.008 .25], TR, 'extract_roi', roi_masks, 'pattern_expression');

@fmri_data.
create
(obj, varargin)¶ Create an object from an empty obj structure, assigning fieldname/value pairs as optional arguments.
Usage: [obj = create(obj, varargin)
Used in fmri_data.m class constructor. if ‘noverbose’ is entered, suppress output

@fmri_data.
extract_roi_averages
(obj, mask_image, varargin)¶ This fmri_data method a extracts and averages data stored in an fmri_data object from a set of ROIs defined in a mask.
If no mask_image is entered, it uses the mask defined with the fmri_data object as a default.
 If mask_image is a new image file name, this method:
 Defines an fmri_mask_image object using create_fmri_mask
 Maps to the space in fmri_data object using resample_to_image_space
Regions to average over can be either regions of contiguous voxels bounded by voxels with values of 0 or NaN, which are considered nondata values, or regions defined by unique integer codes in the mask image (i.e., for atlas images with unique codes for each defined region.)
Mask/Atlas image does NOT have to be in the same space as the images to extract from. It will be remapped/resliced. NOTE: Mask is reloaded from original data if space is remapped, and you cannot use manual thresholding of the mask. This is a feature of the map_to_image_space method and scn_map_image
Extracted data is returned in single data format.
Usage: [[cl, clroimean, clpattern] = extract_roi_averages(fmri_data obj, [mask_image], [average_over])
Inputs:  char array of strings containing 4D image file names (data extracted from these)
 mask_image to extract from.
Optional inputs:  how to average
Default = ‘unique_mask_values’ to average over unique integer codes in the mask image bounded by voxels of 0 or NaN (nondata values) (i.e., for atlas images with unique codes for each defined region) Alt. option = ‘contiguous_regions’ to average over contiguous voxels
 pattern_expression
Use values in mask images to get weighted average within each region, rather than simple average. See also apply_mask with ‘pattern_expression’ option.
Optional outputs (varargout): [cl, cl_roimean, cl_roipattern] = ... roimean: pattern expression is average over ROI (unit vector) roipattern: pattern expression is dot product of activity and meancentered pattern weights
 nonorm
Turn off L1 norm in pattern expression.
Examples: imgs_to_extract_from = filenames('w*.nii','char'); mask_image = which('anat_lbpa_thal.img'); [cl, clroimean, clpattern] = extract_image_data(imgs_to_extract_from, mask_image); region_obj = extract_roi_averages(data_obj, mask_char_name, 'pattern_expression', 'contiguous_regions');
Related functions: For an nonobjectoriented alternative, see extract_image_data.m

@fmri_data.
horzcat
(varargin)¶ Implements the horzcat ([a b]) operator on image_vector objects across voxels. Requires that each object has an equal number of columns and voxels
Usage: function s = horzcat(varargin)
Example: c = [dat1 dat2];

@fmri_data.
hrf_fit
(obj, TR, Runc, T, method, mode)¶ HRF estimation on fmri_data class object
HRF estimation function for a single voxel;
Implemented methods include: ILmodel (Deterministic/Stochastic), FIR (Regular/Smooth), and HRF (Canonical/+ temporal/+ temporal & dispersion)
Inputs:  obj
fMRI object
 TR
time resolution
 Runs
expermental design
 T
length of estimated HRF ij seconds
 type
Model type: ‘FIR’, ‘IL’, or ‘CHRF’
 mode
Mode
Model Types:  Fit HRF using ILfunction
 Choose mode (deterministic/stochastic)
 0  deterministic aproach
 1  simulated annealing approach
Please note that when using simulated annealing approach you may need to perform some tuning before use.
 Fit HRF using FIRmodel
 Choose mode (FIR/sFIR)
 0  FIR
 1  smooth FIR
 Fit HRF using FIRmodel
 Choose mode (FIR/sFIR)
 0  FIR
 1  smooth FIR
Examples: SIMULATE DATA AND RUN
%params for sim and fitting TR = 2; % repetition time (sec) n = 200; % time points measured (for simulation) must be multiple of 10 T = 30; % duration of HRF to estimate (seconds) nconds = 2; % num conditions nevents = 8; % events per condition % Create fake data h = spm_hrf(TR); y = zeros(n, 1); % onsets  indicator Condition = {}; for i = 1:nconds Condition{i} = zeros(n,1); wh = randperm(n); Condition{i}(wh(1:nevents)) = 1; ytmp{i} = conv(Condition{i}, h); ytmp{i} = ytmp{i}(1:n); end y = sum(cat(2, ytmp{:}), 2); dat = fmri_data('VMPFC_mask_neurosynth.img'); % AVAILABLE ON WIKI IN MASK GALLERY dat = threshold(dat, [5 Inf], 'rawbetween'); v = size(dat.dat, 1); % voxels in mask dat.dat = repmat(y',v, 1) + .1 * randn(v, n); % Fit data  estimate HRFs across the brain mask [params_obj hrf_obj] = hrf_fit(dat,TR, Condition, T,'FIR', 1); hrf = fmri_data('HRF_timecourse_cond0001.img'); hrf = remove_empty(hrf); create_figure('hrfs', 1, 2); plot(hrf.dat'); title('Condition 1') hrf = fmri_data('HRF_timecourse_cond0002.img'); hrf = remove_empty(hrf); subplot(1, 2, 2); plot(hrf.dat'); title('Condition 2')

@fmri_data.
plot
(fmridat, plotmethod)¶ Plot means by condition plot(fmri_data_object, ‘means_for_unique_Y’)
Inputs:  Plot methods:
 plot data matrix
 plot(fmri_data_object)
Usage: plot(fmridat, [plotmethod])
Outputs: 5 plots and an SPM orthviews presentation of the data. In the below and elsewhere, “image” connotes a 3D brain volume captured every TR.
 subplot 1:
 the fMRI data itself. Color is intensity of signal.
 subplot 2:
 presented as a histogram of values for every voxel collected. The low values are typically outofbrain voxels, as there is no signal there.
 subplot 3:
 each point is an image. The point’s X value is the mean intensity of every voxel in that image, and the Y value is the stdev of intensities for all voxels in that image.
 subplot 4:
 covariance between images
 subplot 5:
 each point is an image (case = image). X value is image number in the run, Y is image mean intensity, and the size of the circular marker represents stdev for that image
 Orthviews:
 mean and STD for a given voxel averaged over time. Note that the values for mean and STD here are higher than in the plots above. That is because mean and STD are calculated here by voxel, but in the plots above they are calculated by image. Images also include outofbrain areas.

@fmri_data.
predict
(obj, varargin)¶ Predict outcome (Y) from brain data and test crossvalidated error rate for an fmri_data object
Usage: [cverr, stats, optional_outputs] = predict(obj, varargin)
Features:  flexible specification of algorithm by function name
 kfold crossvalidation, default = 5fold, can enter custom fold membership
 folds are stratified on outcome
 choice of multiple error metrics (class loss, mse, etc.)
 by default, chooses error metric based on outcome type (classes vs. continuousvalued)
 returns all outputs for each fold returned by the algorithm in optout cell array variable
 bootstrapping of weights built in [optional keyword]
 select variable number of components (for pcrbased techniques)
Inputs:  obj is mandatory, rest are optional
 obj:
 fmri_data or image_vector object, with fields .dat (data used to predict) and .Y (outcome)
Optional inputs: (with their default values)
 nfolds = 5
number of folds
 nfolds = [vector of integers]
can also input vector of integers for holdout set IDs
 error_type = mcr
mcr, mse: misclassification rate or mean sq. error
 algorithm_name = ‘cv_regress’
name of mfile defining training/test function
 useparallel = 1
Use parallel processing, if available; follow by 1 for yes, 0 for no
 bootweights = 0
bootstrap voxel weights; enter bootweights do bootstrapping of weight maps (based on all observations)
 savebootweights
save bootstraped weights (useful for combining across multiple iterations of predict())
 bootsamples = 100
number of bootstrap samples to use
 numcomponents = xxx:
save first xxx components (for pcabased methods)
 nopcr
for cv_lassopcr and cv_lassopcrmatlab: do not do pcr, use original variables
 lasso_num = xxx
followed by number of components/vars to retain after shrinkage
 hvblock = [h,v]
use hvblock crossvalidation with a block size of ‘h’ (0 reduces to vfold xval) and number of test observations ‘v’ (0 reduces to hblock xval)
 rolling = [h,v,g]
use rolling crossvalidation with a block size of ‘h’ (0 reduces to vfold xval) and number of test observations ‘v’ (0 reduces to hblock xval), and a training size of g * 2 surrounding hv
 verbose = 1
Set to 0 to suppress output to command window
 platt_scaling
calculate crossvalidated platt scaling if using SVM. Softmax parameters [A,B] are in other_output{3}
Algorithm choices: You can input the name (as a string array) of any algorithm with the appropriate inputs and outputs. i.e., this can either be one of the builtin choices below, or the name of another mfile. The format for algorithm functions is : [yfit, other_outputs] = predfun(xtrain, ytrain, xtest, optional_inputs) Each algorithm can take/interpret its own optional inputs. For bootstrapping of weights, algorithms MUST RETURN 3 OUTPUTS (programming ‘feature’)
To choose an algorithm, enter ‘algorithm_name’ followed by a text string with a builtin algorithm name, or a function handle for a custom algorithm Builtin algorithm choices include:
 cv_multregress:
[default] multiple regression
 cv_univregress:
Average predictions from separate univariate regression of outcome on each feature
 cv_svr:
Support vector regression with Spider package; requires spider
 cv_pcr:
Crossvalidated principal components regression
 cv_lassopcr:
Crossval LASSOPCR; can enter ‘lasso_num’ followed by components to retain by shrinkage NOTE: can enter ‘EstimateParams’ to use shrankage lasso method based on the estimated optimal lambda that minimizes the mean squared error (MSE) of nested crossvalidation models. Output of nested cv model is saved in stats.other_output_cv{:,3}. Output includes ‘Lambda’ parameter and min MSE value.
 cv_lassopcrmatlab:
Crossval LASSOPCR; can enter ‘lasso_num’ followed by components to retain by shrinkage NOTE: this uses the matlab implementation of LASSO, but can also run ridge or elastic net. Reduces to PCR when no lasso_num is entered by default. Use MSE for predicting continuous data and MCR for classifying binary data. NOTE: You can input any optional inputs that lassoglm takes. Enter ‘Alpha’, (0,1] as optional inputs to run ridge (Alpha approaches 0, but excluding 0), lasso (Alpha = 1), or elastic net (Alpha between 0 and 1) NOTE: Requires Matlab R2012a and higher. NOTE: Optional input: ‘EstimateParams’  this will use grid search and nested cross validation to estimate Lambda and Alpha. Output is saved in stats.other_output_cv{:,3}. Output includes ‘Alpha’ parameter which is the elastic net mixture value between l1 and l2 regularization, ‘Lambda’ parameter, which is amount of LASSO regularization/shrinkage, and ‘errorMatrix’, which is the amount of error for each parameter combination. Use imagesc(obj.stats_other_output_cv{:,3}.errorMatrix) to view matrix. Min of this matrix is the best fitting parameters.
 cv_svm:
Crossval support vector machine using Spider package NOTE: This is sensitive to scale of outputs! Use 1 , 1 NOTE: Optional inputs: Slack var parameter: ‘C’, 1 [default], ‘C’, 3 etc. Distance from hyperplane saved in stats.other_output_cv{:,2}. Recommend using the reordered crossvalidated distance from hyperplane saved in stats.other_output{3} stats.dist_from_hyperplane_xval = crossvalidated distance from hyperplane stats.weight_obj = voxel (variable) weight object e.g., orthviews(stats.weight_obj) Intercept for calculating dist from hy is in stats.other_output_cv{:,3} e.g., dist_hy = stats.weight_obj.dat’ * obj.dat, where obj is a new set of test images NOTE: To run nonlinear SVM using radial basis function. Add ‘rbf’ followed by size of sigma (e.g., 2). NOTE: To estimate some of the parameters using nested cross validation add ‘EstimateParams’ as optional input. NOTE: To run multiclass SVM (i.e., one vs rest) add ‘MultiClass’ as optional input. Important  Obj.Y must be a matrix (data x class) with a column of 1 and 1 indicating each class. For example, if using 3 classes, then obj.Y must have 3 columns. NOTE: To run a balanced SVM where the number of cases for each class are unequal (i.e., one vs rest) add ‘Balanced’ as optional input, followed by a numerical value indicating the ridge amount (e.g., 0.01).
 cv_multilevel_glm:
Runs glmfit_multilevel. Must pass in ‘’subjIDs’’ followed by an array specifying which subject each trial belongs to Subjects’ trials must all be “adjacent”, i.e., don’t put some of subject 1’s trials at the beginning and other trials at the end – subjIDs does not handle this case correctly. Also, 2ND LEVEL PREDICTORS NOT CURRENTLY SUPPORTED. code can be expanded to support this. meancentering X and/or Y will NOT impact the predictor betas. Note that it WILL impact the intercept esimate as well as how much variance is explained (pred_outcome_r). Stratified CV partition not supported either, pass in custom holdout set.
Outputs:  Y:
Copy of outcome data to be predicted
 algorithm_name:
Name of algorithm; see options above
 function_call:
String of the command evaluated to call the prediction function
 function_handle:
Handle for the command evaluated to call the prediction function
 yfit:
Predicted outcome data (crossvalidated)
 err:
Residuals/misclassification vector (crossvalidated)
 error_type:
Name of error metric used for cverr
 cverr:
Crossvalidated error
 nfolds:
Number of folds in stratified crossvalidation, or vector of integers for membership in custom holdout set of each fold
 if k = 1, will estimate weights for full data object and not crossvalidate (useful for bootstrapping)
 cvpartition:
Crossval partition object or structure with fold info
 teIdx:
Cell array of logical vectors with test samples in each fold
 trIdx:
Cell array of logical vectors with training samples in each fold
 other_output:
Other outputs returned by the algorithm; number and nature depend on algo choice; e.g., beta weights, svr weights, etc. For many algorithms, other_output{1} is a vector of weights on variables (e.g., voxels)
 other_output_descrip:
String description of other outputs
 other_output_cv:
Other outputs for each crossvalidation fold
 other_output_cv_descrip:
Other output from algorithm  for each CV fold
 mse:
For regression only; mean squared error
 rmse:
For regression only; root mean squared error
 meanabserr:
For regression only; mean absolute error
 pred_outcome_r:
For regression only; predictionoutcome correlation
 WTS:
bootstrapped weights on voxels
 weight_obj:
for some algorithms, an fmri_data object with the predictive weights (from full sample)
Examples: obj = fmri_data; obj.dat = randn(30, 50); % 30 voxels, 50 images (observations) obj.Y = obj.dat' * rand(30, 1) + randn(50, 1); % toy Y, linear combo of X plus noise [cverr, stats, regression_outputs] = predict(obj); Simulated example with 100 observations, 1000 voxels, with bootstrapping dat = fmri_data; dat.Y = rand(100, 1); dat.dat = repmat(dat.Y', 1000, 1) + 10*rand(1000, 100); [err,stats] = predict(dat, 'bootweights', 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcr'); [cverr, stats, regression_outputs] = predict(obj, 'nfolds', 3, 'error_type', 'meanabserr'); [cverr, stats, regression_outputs] = predict(obj, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_univregress', 'error_type', 'meanabserr'); [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(obj, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcr', 'lasso_num', 5, 'nfolds', 5, 'error_type', 'mse', 'bootweights'); [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_svm', 'nfolds', 5, 'error_type', 'mse'); [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_svm', 'rbf', 2, 'nfolds', 5, 'error_type', 'mse'); %SVM w/ radial basis function [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_svm', 'rbf', 2, 'EstimateParams', 'nfolds', 5, 'error_type', 'mse'); %SVM w/ radial basis function w/ parameters estimated using nested crossvaldiation [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_svm', 'nfolds', 5, 'MultiClass', 'error_type', 'mse'); Elastic net with first 10 components: [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat_masked, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcrmatlab', 'nfolds', 5, 'error_type', 'mse', 'numcomponents', 10, 'Alpha', .5); stats.pred_outcome_r Ridge with first 10 components: [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat_masked, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcrmatlab', 'nfolds', 5, 'error_type', 'mse', 'numcomponents', 10, 'Alpha', 0.00001); stats.pred_outcome_r Lasso with all components, but shrink to retain 2 components only: [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcrmatlab', 'nfolds', whfolds, 'nopcr', 'lasso_num', 2, 'Alpha', 1); [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcr', 'nfolds', whfolds, 'lasso_num', 2); Lasso with the shrinkage methods based on the estimated optimal lambda that minimizes MSE of nested crossvalidation models. [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcr', 'nfolds', whfolds, 'estimateparam'); [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcr', 'nfolds', 5, 'estimateparam'); Lasso without doing PCR: [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcrmatlab', 'nfolds', whfolds, 'nopcr', 'lasso_num', 2, 'Alpha', 1); [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcr', 'nfolds', whfolds, 'lasso_num', 2, 'nopcr'); [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcr', 'nfolds', 5, 'estimateparam', 'nopcr'); Lasso pcr using hvblock crossvalidation on timeseries, h = 3, v = 5; [cverr, stats, optout] = predict(dat, 'algorithm_name', 'cv_lassopcr', 'hvblock',[3,5]); Output display: orthviews(stats.weight_obj) line_plot_multisubject(stats.yfit, stats.Y, 'subjid', id_numbers);
See also: predict_test_suite method for fmri_data, which runs predict with multiple options and summarizes output.
xval_regression_multisubject, xval_lasso_brain

@fmri_data.
predict_test_suite
(dat, varargin)¶ Run a set of crossvalidated prediction algorithms on an fmri_data object and plot the outcome.
Usage: [allcverr, allyhat] = predict_test_suite(dat, [optional inputs])
Functionality:  Requires matlab 2012a or later for full functionality
 Handles categorical or continuous outcomes automatically
Inputs:  dat:
an fMRI data object. dat.Y must be assigned, and must have continuous or binary outcomes assigned.
Optional:  quick:
 Skip extended output
 nfolds:
 Followed by number of folds or custom holdout vector (default = 5fold balanced)
Examples: predict_test_suite(dat, 'nfolds', subjid);

@fmri_data.
regress
(dat, varargin)¶ Regression method for fmri_data object
Regress dat.X on dat.dat at each voxel, and return voxelwise statistic images. Each column of dat.X is a predictor in a multiple regression, and the intercept is the last column. Intercept will automatically be added if not detected unless ‘nointercept’ is specified.
This function can also create a map of brain regions that predict the dat.Y vector using the ‘brainony’ option. This is essentially a univariate version of the ‘predict’ command. Warning: this is very slow as it loops through all voxels.
Regression is OLS by default, but can be robust using ‘robust’ flag.
Creates thresholded plot by default
Usage: out = regress(dat, varargin)
Inputs:  dat:
should be an fmri_data object with X field defined. dat.X can be a design_matrix() object.
Optional Inputs:  [threshold, ‘unc’]:
pvalue threshold string indicating threshold type (see help statistic_image.threshold for options)
 nointercept:
Do not add intercept to model
 nodisplay:
Do not plot thresholded results using orthviews
 brainony:
univariate approach to predict obj.Y from brain data
 residual:
Output residual as fmri_data() object
 noverbose:
Suppress verbose outputs
 robust:
Run a robust regression (default is OLS). Robust is considerably slower than OLS
Outputs:  out:
A structure containing stats_img and fmri_data objects.
 out.b:
stats_img object of beta values estimated from regression
 out.t:
stats_img object of tvalues with input threshold
 out.df:
fmri_data object of degrees of freedom
 out.sigma:
fmri_data object of variance of residual
 out.residual:
fmri_data object of residual data after model has been regressed out (optional).
Examples: % Run regression with liberal threshold out = regress(dat, .05, 'unc'); % Run regression with conservative threshold and save residual out = regress(dat, .001, 'unc', 'residual); % Run robust regression with fdr threshold out = regress(dat, .05, 'fdr','robust'); % Run a regression predicting behavior from brain at liberal threshold out = regress(data_comb, .05, 'unc', 'brainony') % Rethreshold at different values out.t = threshold(out.t, .05, 'fdr'); out.t = threshold(out.t, .001, 'unc'); % Redisplay results of thresholding orthviews(out.t); % Write out beta image to current directory out.b.fullpath = fullfile(pwd,'beta.nii'); write(out)

@fmri_data.
rescale
(fmridat, meth, varargin)¶ Rescales data in an fmri_data object Data is observations x images, so operating on the columns operates on images, and operating on the rows operates on voxels (or variables more generally) across images.
Usage: fmridat = rescale(fmridat, meth)
Inputs:  Methods:
 centervoxels
 zscorevoxels
 centerimages
 zscoreimages
 rankvoxels
 windsorizevoxels
 percentchange
 tanh
 Appropriate for multisession (time series) only:
 session_global_percent_change
 session_global_z
 session_multiplicative
See also fmri_data.preprocess

@fmri_data.
saveplots
(fmri_dat, varargin)¶ Output dir

@fmri_data.
signtest
(dat, varargin)¶ Sign test for each voxel of an fmri_data object returns voxelwise statistic images.
Usage: [out, statimg] = signtest(dat, [pval threshold], [thresh_type])
Inputs:  dat:
Should be an fmri_data object with .dat field containing voxels x observations matrix
Optional inputs: in [ ] above are pvalue threshold:
string indicating threshold type (see help statistic_image.threshold for options)
Outputs:  out:
is a structure of information about the sign test
 statimg:
is a statistic_image object that can be thresholded and plotted/imaged. statimg.dat contains signed direction values,
.p contains pvalues
c Tor Wager, 2011 ..
See also: fmri_data.regress

@fmri_data.
ttest
(fmridat, pvalthreshold, thresh_type)¶ Ttest on fmri_data class object
Usage: statsimg = ttest(fmridat, pvalthreshold, thresh_type)
Inputs:  pvalue threshold:
pvalue, e.g., .05 or .001 or [.001 .01 .05]
 thresh_type:
‘uncorrected’, ‘fwe’, or ‘fdr’
Examples: %Ttest, Construct a stats_image object, threshold and display: statsimg = ttest(fmridat, .001, 'unc'); orthviews(statsimg); %Rethreshold and display: statsimg = threshold(statsimg, .000001, 'unc'); orthviews(statsimg); statsimg = threshold(statsimg, .01, 'fdr'); orthviews(statsimg);
Note: for twosample Ttest, use fmri_data.regress

@fmri_data.
windsorize
(obj, varargin)¶ Windsorize an fMRI data object to madlimit Median Absolute Deviations. Default = 5 MADs. Works across rows and columns. Registers this step in history.
Usage: obj = windsorize(obj, [madlimit])
fmri_mask_image¶

@fmri_mask_image.
resample_to_image_space
(obj, sampleto, varargin)¶ Resamples data in an fmri_mask_image object (obj) to the space of another image (e.g., a functional image, for data extraction) The volInfo field will be the same as the sampleto volume info. The mask will have zeros in obj.dat for outofmask voxels. THIS FUNCTION USES SCN_MAP_IMAGE AND REQUIRES THAT THE ORIGINAL IMAGE BE AVAILABLE ON DISK. Multiple resamplings will break the function because the new space will be different from the original one on disk. Use the more general resample_space.
NOTE: Mask is reloaded from original data if space is remapped, and you cannot use manual thresholding of the mask. This is a feature of the map_to_image_space method and scn_map_image
Usage: obj = resample_to_image_space(obj, sampleto <img name or image_vector object>)
Inputs:  obj:
must be an fmri_mask_image object
 sampleto:
 can be either:
 An image name to sample to
 Another fmri_mask_image object (but image must exist on path!)
Optional inputs:  mask:
Apply sampleto as mask so that only voxels in the sampleto mask are retained in obj.dat.
THIS FUNCTION WORKS, BUT IS DEPRECATED BECAUSE RESAMPLE_SPACE IS MORE GENERAL. resample_space does not require the resampling of the original image from disk, which this does. resample_space is slower, though.
See Also: resample_space, for a method that does not require images to exist on disk on the path.
fmri_model¶

@fmri_model.
build
(obj)¶ Build the design matrix (xx) for an fmri_model object
We assume that the same conditions are modeled for each session. We assume that you have one basis set per condition (this is different from SPM, which only allows a single basis set across all conditions)
Usage: obj = build(fmri_model_obj)

@fmri_model.
build_single_trial
(obj, inputhrf)¶ Build a singletrial design matrix (xx) for an fmri_model object
We assume that the same conditions are modeled for each session We assume that you have one basis set per condition (this is different from SPM, which only allows a single basis set across all conditions)
This is used in single_trial_estimates, which assumes that you have estimated an initial model and saved image data.
The idea behind this is somewhat different from other canlab singletrial analyses, in that it takes in a single, custom HRF for each condition, rather than using a basis set. In single_trial_estimates, custom HRFs are created for each voxel by using the condition and voxelspecific hrf estimates stored during model fitting.
 The sequence would be:
 robustfit(my_model), to fit average model and get HRF est for each voxel
 single_trial_estimates(my_model), to use this function to build singletrial design matrices and fit them.
Usage: obj = build_single_trial(fmri_model_obj, inputhrf)
Inputs:  inputhrf:
should be a cell array of length nconds (number of conditions).

@fmri_model.
get_condition_assignments
(obj)¶  Condition assignments
 Indicator matrix coding for which columns in X belong to the same modeled condition, and are part of the same HRF fit
 There is one set of columns for each condition modeled, and one set of columns for each parametric modulator of each condition
 Because parametric modulators may not exist for all conditions, we need to build this dynamically for modulators.
Design matrix build (which calls method get_session_X) builds columns in this order:
All within Session: Regressors of interest, basis functions within conditions Parametric modulators, basis functions within conditions Covariates of no interest
Then: Baselines (session/run intercepts)
This method is called automatically in the build method.

@fmri_model.
get_session_X
(obj, s)¶ Get design matrix (predictors) for one session of fmri_model object, using basis functions defined in the object and onsets for one session (s).
Usage: [Xs, delta, C, B, names] = get_session_X(obj, session number)

@fmri_model.
plot
(obj)¶ Plot an fmri_model object
Usage: plot(obj)

@fmri_model.
replace_basis_set
(obj, condition_num, xBF_hires)¶ Replace a basis set in an fmri_model object with another one of your choosing.
This allows one to use a custom basis set, and also to use different basis sets for different trial types.
Each condition across all sessions must be modeled with the same basis set. That is, there can be only one basis set per condition, e.g., one for anticipation (used in each session) and one for pain.
Usage: obj = replace_basis_set(obj, condition_num, xBF_hires)
Examples: % generate a custom spline basis set and use that for Condition 1, % and the standard one for Condition 2: [xBF_hires, xBF] = fmri_spline_basis(2, 'length', 12, 'nbasis', 3, 'order', 3, 'plot'); %save this to get info that is not typically in basis set until after %model is built.

@fmri_model.
robustfit
(fmri_model_obj, fmri_data_obj, varargin)¶ Robust fit for a model object to data object
Usage: robustfit(fmri_model_obj, fmri_data_obj, [optional args])
Features: spatial smoothing of weights at 12 mm FWHM ridge regression *not yet*
Preproc scaling:  Remove covariates using ridge reg; ridge trace for full model
 scale to % signal change across time (cols) OR rank time points (for w/i ss predictions??) AND/OR rank or center rows (images; for ‘shape’ analysis
Example: %sig across time, rank across rows: relative % sig change
Different models of noise lead to different ideas about optimal preproc If large diffs in nuisance scaling in BOLD across individuals, ranking cols may be good idea. but then individual diffs in overall activity will be removed...
Options:  tune:
tuning const for robust reg
 iter:
‘maxiterations’, robust reg /WLS iterations. 1 = OLS only!
 smooth:
‘spatial_smooth_fwhm’, 0 or smoothing kernel for weights
 nosmooth:
spatial_smooth_fwhm = 0;
 stats:
‘calculate_stats’, calculate_stats = 1; IN DEVELOPMENT
 noresiduals:
write_residuals = 0;
 noplots:
save_plots = 0;

@fmri_model.
rotate_to_pca
(obj)¶ Rotate design matrix columns within all conditions to principal component projection.

@fmri_model.
single_trial_estimates
(obj, fmri_data_obj)¶ Write single trial estimates associated with an estimated fmri_model object. must have estimated the model (robustfit(obj); see fmri_model.robustfit) and saved hrf*.img images for each condition.
Also input an fmri_data object with time series data.
This function writes images, one 4D image for each condition, with the number of frames equalling the number of trials (onsets) for that condition.
It does this by constructing a separate design matrix for each voxel, which is based on the HRF estimates for that voxel for each condition. Fits for all conditions are added to the same model, so that their colinearity influences the singletrial parameter estimates.
fmridisplay¶

@fmridisplay.
addblobs
(obj, cl, varargin)¶ This is a method for fmridisplay objects that adds blobs to one or more montages and other surface plot(s).
Usage: obj = addblobs(obj, cl, varargin)
See addthreshblobs and multi_threshold methods for a multiple thresholds version render_blobs does most of the hard work.
Inputs:  obj:
an fmridisplay object
 cl:
a region object. If you’re using an fmri_data object pass in region(fmri_data_obj)
Optional inputs: There are many optional inputs that control display features of blobs. These are determined by render_blobs
COLOR:
 ‘color’:
 followed by color vector, e.g., [0 1 1]
 ‘maxcolor’:
 followed by color vector for max color range, e.g., [0 1 1]
 ‘mincolor’:
 followed by color vector for min color range, e.g., [0 0 1]
 ‘onecolor’:
 force solidcolor blobs
 ‘splitcolor’:
 Positive and negative values are mapped to different colormaps. Default is +=hot, =cool colors. Followed optionally by cell array with vectors of 4 colors defining max/min for +/ range, e.g., {[0 0 1] [.3 0 .8] [.8 .3 0] [1 1 0]}
‘OUTLINING:
**‘’outline’
 ‘linewidth’:
followed by width value, e.g., 1
Note: add ‘no_surface’ to stop updating the existing surface blobs
‘COLOR RANGE:
 ‘’cmaprange’:
 followed by range of values, e.g., [0 40], [3 3]. Used in color and transparency setting under some circumstances.
 ‘TRANSPARENCY:
 {‘trans’, ‘transparent’,’scaledtransparency’, ‘constanttrans’, [val], ‘transvalue’, [val]}
 ‘trans’:
 Transparent blobs; with no other input, transparency = 0.75 (1 is opaque, 0 is transparent/invisible)
 ‘scaledtransparency’:
 Transparency is a function of voxel value, lower values are more transparent
 ‘transvalue’:
 Followed by width value, e.g., 1. also ‘constanttrans’
Other Options:  ‘smooth’:
Smooth blobs
‘contour’:
 ‘no_surface’:
Do not add blobs to surface handles, if they exist
CONTROL OF WHICH MONTAGE
 ‘wh_montages’:
 followed by vector of montage numbers as they appear in the list of registered montages in the fmridisplay object
CONTROL OF WHICH SURFACE
 ‘wh_surfaces’:
 followed by vector of surface numbers as they appear in
 the list of registered surfaces in the fmridisplay object
Examples: obj = addblobs(obj, cl, 'color', [0 1 1]); obj = addblobs(obj, cl, 'color', [0 0 1], 'outline'); obj = addblobs(obj, cl, 'color', [0 1 0], 'outline', 'linewidth', 1, 'smooth'); obj = addblobs(obj, cl, 'color', [1 0 0], 'smooth', 'cmaprange', [0 40]); obj = addblobs(obj, cl, ... 'wh_montages', 1); obj = addblobs(obj, cl, 'splitcolor', ... 'cmaprange', ... 'trans');
Add only to montage 2 in vector of montages in obj.montage
obj = addblobs(obj, cl, 'which_montages', 2);
Map values to the colormap red>yellow.
This uses the default percentilebased mapping so that 20% of voxels will have the low color and 20% will have the high color, and the rest will be in between:
obj = addblobs(obj, cl, 'maxcolor', [1 1 0], 'mincolor', [1 0 0]);
Same, but now Map a specific range of values in image ([0 to .05])
obj = addblobs(obj, cl, 'maxcolor', [1 1 0], 'mincolor', [1 0 0], 'cmaprange', [0 .05]);
Separate positive and negative activations and map to a split colormap;
See render_blobs
o2 = addblobs(o2, cl, 'splitcolor', {[0 0 1] [.3 0 .8] [.8 .3 0] [1 1 0]}, 'wh_montages', 1);
It is possible to transparencymap values in a statistic image so you can show ‘unthresholded’ statistic values. e.g.:
o2 = addblobs(o2, cl, 'splitcolor', {[0 0 1] [0 1 1] [1 .5 0] [1 1 0]}, 'cmaprange', [2 2], 'trans', 'scaledtransparency');

@fmridisplay.
addpoints
(obj, xyz, varargin)¶ Plots points on fmridisplay objects (e.g., montages of slices)
Usage: newax = addpoints(obj, xyz, varargin)
Registers handles with the object (referred to as obj)
 enter xyz as n x 3 list of coordinates in mm to plot (world space)
 Points or text labels or both
 Flexible slice spacing, colors, marker sizes/styles, axis layout (one row/standard square)
 axial, saggital, or coronal orientation handled automatically
 Multiple different sets of points can be plotted in different colors/text labels
Optional Inputs: Takes all inputs of plot_points_on_slice. See help for additional documentation of options.
 {‘text’, ‘textcodes’}:
 cell array of text values corresponding to points
 {‘condf’ ‘colorcond’}:
 vector of integers to define color conditions
 ‘close_enough’:
 mm within which to plot; defined automatically based on slice distance if not entered
 ‘color’:
 string, ‘b’, or vector, [1 0 0], to define colors; cell if condf is used, e.g., {‘b’ ‘g’}
 {‘marker’, ‘MarkerStyle’}:
 e.g., ‘o’, ‘v’, ‘s’
{‘MarkerSize’, ‘markersize’}:
 {‘MarkerFaceColor’, ‘markerfacecolor’}:
 see color above
Examples: Plot points (i.e., coordinate locations) for xyz coords:
o2 = addpoints(o2, DB.xyz, 'MarkerFaceColor', 'b', 'Marker', 'o', 'MarkerSize', 4); o2 = addpoints(o2, DB.xyz, 'text', DB.textcodes, 'condf', DB.condf, 'color', {'b' 'g'}); o2 = removepoints(o2);

@fmridisplay.
addthreshblobs
(obj, statimg, varargin)¶ Usage: obj = addthreshblobs(obj, statimg, varargin)
Add blobs from a statistical image object at multiple thresholds to montage and other surface plots.
It passes options specified in varargin onto addblobs, see help addblobs for options. In addition it has the parameters ‘thresh’ and ‘pruneclusters’ are used and have default values.
Inputs:  obj:
fmridisplay object, e.g. from a montage
 statimg:
statistics_image object
 ‘thresh’,{‘fdr’,0.01}:
cell array of pvalue thresholds in ascending order. can be ‘fdr’, or uncorrecetd pvalue. defaults to:
thresh = {‘fdr’,‘0.001’,‘0.01’}
 ‘pruneclusters’, [0 or 1]:
Prune clusters that do not have at least one voxel surving at the most stringent threshold. Defaults to 1.
Examples: Add blobs from statimg at 3 significance levels [FDR, 0.001 unc., 0.01 unc.]. Prune clusters.
obj = addthreshblobs(obj, statimg);
Add blobs from statimg at 3 significance levels [FDR, 0.001 unc., 0.01 unc.]. Prune clusters.
obj = addthreshblobs(obj, statimg, 'thresh', {'fdr', 0.001, 0.01});
Add blobs from statimg at 2 significance levels [FDR, 0.001 unc.]. Do not prune clusters
obj = addthreshblobs(obj, statimg, 'thresh', {'fdr', 0.001},'pruneclusters',0);
set defaults for thresholds and cluster pruning

@fmridisplay.
legend
(obj, varargin)¶ Creates legend for fmridisplay object Adds legend axis handles to obj.activation_maps{:}
Usage: obj = legend(obj, varargin) obj = legend(obj, 'figure') % new figure

@fmridisplay.
montage
(obj, varargin)¶  Creates montage of slices
 Solid brain slices or contour outlines
 Points or text labels or both
 Flexible slice spacing, colors, marker sizes/styles, axis layout (one row/standard square)
 axial or saggital orientation
Usage: obj = montage(obj, varargin)
Takes all inputs of plot_points_on_slice.
Optional Inputs:  {‘noslice’, ‘nodraw’}:
drawslice = 0;
 ‘color’:
color = varargin{i+1}; varargin{i+1} = [];
 ‘marker’:
marker = varargin{i+1}; varargin{i + 1} = [];
 {‘wh_slice’}:
wh_slice = varargin{i+1};
 {‘close’, ‘closeenough’, ‘close_enough’}:
close_enough = varargin{i+1};
 {‘sagg’,’saggital’,’sagittal’}:
orientation = ‘sagittal’;
 {‘MarkerSize’, ‘markersize’}:
markersize = varargin{i+1};
 {‘MarkerFaceColor’, ‘markerfacecolor’}:
facecolor = varargin{i+1};
 ‘solid’:
disptype = ‘solid’;
 ‘overlay’:
ovl = varargin{i + 1}; NOTE! DO NOT ENTER THIS HERE; ENTER WHEN YOU INITIALIZE FMRIDISPLAY OBJECT
 {‘text’, ‘textcodes’}:
textcodes = varargin{i + 1};
 {‘condf’ ‘colorcond’}:
condf = varargin{i + 1};
In addition:
 ‘onerow’:
 arrange axes in one row
 ‘slice_range’:
 [min max] values in mm for slices to plot
 ‘wh_slice’ or ‘custom_coords’:
 followed my mm values for slices desired
e.g., for cluster/region centers, xyz = cat(1, cl.mm_center) o2 = montage(o2, ‘axial’, ‘wh_slice’, xyz, ‘onerow’); o2 = montage(o2, ‘saggital’, ‘wh_slice’, xyz, ‘onerow’);
 ‘spacing’:
 followed by interslice spacing in mm
Outputs:  obj:
an fmridisplay object
Properties:  overlay: [1x105 char]
 SPACE: [1x1 struct]
 activation_maps: {[1x1 struct]}
 montage: {[1x1 struct]}
 surface: {}
 orthviews: {}
 history: {}
 history_descrip: []
 additional_info: ‘’
Examples:
o2 = fmridisplay; % create starting fmridisplay container object
Define new axes in existing figure, and use those for montage:
axh = axes('Position', [0.05 0.4 .1 .5]); o2 = montage(o2, 'saggital', 'wh_slice', xyz(1,:), 'existing_axes', axh); o2 = montage(o2, 'saggital', 'slice_range', [10 10], 'onerow'); o2 = montage(o2, 'axial', 'slice_range', [40 50], 'onerow', 'spacing', 4); o2 = montage(o2, 'axial', 'slice_range', [20 30], 'onerow', 'spacing', 8); o2 = montage(o2, 'axial', 'wh_slice', xyz, 'onerow'); % Parasaggital only: o2 = montage(o2, 'saggital', 'slice_range', [4 4], 'onerow', 'spacing', 8);
Add/remove blobs and points with fmridisplay.addblobs, fmridisplay.addpoints, fmridisplay.removeblobs, fmridisplay.removepoints
See also: fmridisplay, cluster_orthviews, montage_clusters and variants

@fmridisplay.
surface
(obj, varargin)¶ Adds surfaces of brain to figure
Usage: obj = surface(obj, varargin)
Inputs:  obj:
fmridisplay
Outputs:  obj:
an fmridisplay object
Properties:  overlay: ‘’
 SPACE: ‘’
 activation_maps: {}
 montage: {}
 surface: {[1x1 struct]}
 orthviews: {}
 history: {}
 history_descrip: []
 additional_info: ‘’
Examples: o2 = surface(o2, axes, [0.15 0.28 .15 1], ‘direction’, ‘hires right’, ‘orientation’, ‘lateral’);
See help fmridisplay

@fmridisplay.
transparency_change
(o2, multval)¶ Change the transparency of blobs in an fmridisplay object
Inputs:  multval:
multiply transparency values by this.
values < 1 makes blobs more transparent, > 1 makes blobs more opaque
fmridisplay_helper_functions¶

fmridisplay_helper_functions.
clusters2mask2011
(cl, varargin)¶ Returns 3D mask of voxels included in a cl structure.
Usage: [mask, mask2] = clusters2mask2011(cl, [dim])
Mask values are coded with the cluster index. That is, the nonzero entries in mask are integers that reflect the index of the unique contiguous cluster to which each voxel belongs.
Any nonzero value indicates membership in a cluster Uses VOXEL values from cl, so define cl in the space you wish to have for mask first!
Optional: A 2nd argument will be treated as ‘dim’, dimensions in voxels of the new mask image. If empty, uses max value in cluster to determine automatically, but then the mask may not match image dimensions desired for .img/.nii reading/writing purposes.
If a second output is requested, the second output (maskz) is a mask like the first, but the values in the mask reflect the numeric value stored in the cl.Z field (whether Zscores or other values, depending on how cl is constructed.)

fmridisplay_helper_functions.
define_sampling_space
(V, varargin)¶ Define the sampling space of an image, with an upsampled space to 0.5 mm resolution
Usage: SPACE = define_sampling_space(V, [upsamplefactor])
Inputs:  V:
spmstyle .mat structure, e.g., from spm_vol
 V.mat:
4 x 4 matrix of voxel sizes and mm coords for the bottom back left vox
 V.dim:
dimensions of image
Outputs:  Xo, Yo:
Meshgrid for original voxel space
 X, Y:
Meshgrid for upsampled voxel space at 0.5 mm resolution
 Xmm, Ymm:
Meshgrid for upsampled space in mm
 xcoords, ycoords:
mm coordinates for rows and cols for slice locations
 new_voxSize:
new voxel size in mm for upsampled space
 usfactor:
Upsampling factor for new sampleing space
Examples: overlay = which('SPM8_colin27T1_seg.img'); % spm8 seg cleaned up V = spm_vol(overlay); SPACE = define_sampling_space(V) % Define mm sampling space in original voxel coord resolution SPACE = define_sampling_space(V, 1) original (o) and new (X, Y) grid space xcoords, ycoords: mm coords centered on origin

fmridisplay_helper_functions.
display_slice
(dat, wh_slice, SPACE, varargin)¶ Resample slice data in dat to SPACE and display
Usage: Z = display_slice(dat, wh_slice, SPACE, varargin)

fmridisplay_helper_functions.
map_to_world_space
(V)¶ Usage: SPACE = map_to_world_space(V)
Inputs:  V:
spmstyle .mat structure, e.g., from spm_vol
 V.mat:
4 x 4 matrix of voxel sizes and mm coords for the bottom back left vox
 V.dim:
dimensions of image
Outputs: SPACE structure, with fields:
 Xmm, Ymm, Zmm:
Meshgrid for voxel volume in mm space
 xcoords, ycoords, zcoords:
mm coordinates for rows, cols, slices

fmridisplay_helper_functions.
render_blobs
(currentmap, mymontage, SPACE, varargin)¶ This is a helper function for fmridisplay objects, called by the addblobs method
Usage: [blobhan, cmaprange, mincolor, maxcolor] = render_blobs(currentmap, mymontage, SPACE, varargin)
See fmridisplay.m and addblobs.m method in fmridisplay for more details and options.
Inputs:  currentmap:
see addblobs method. Montage within fmridisplay object.
 mymontage:
ditto
 SPACE:
space of map to sample to (object display SPACE in fmridisplay object)
Optional Inputs: There are many optional inputs that control display features of blobs.
COLOR:
 ‘color’:
followed by color vector, e.g., [0 1 1]
 maxcolor’:
followed by color vector for max color range, e.g., [0 1 1]
 mincolor’:
followed by color vector for min color range, e.g., [0 0 1]
 onecolor’:
force solidcolor blobs
 splitcolor’:
Positive and negative values are mapped to different colormaps. Default is +=hot, =cool colors. Followed optionally by cell array with vectors of 4 colors defining max/min for +/ range, e.g., {[0 0 1] [.3 0 .8] [.8 .3 0] [1 1 0]}
OUTLINING:
‘outline’
 ‘linewidth’:
followed by width value, e.g., 1
COLOR RANGE:
 ‘cmaprange’:
followed by range of values, e.g., [0 40], [3 3]. Used in color and transparency setting under some circumstances.
TRANSPARENCY:
{‘trans’, ‘transparent’,’scaledtransparency’, ‘constanttrans’, [val], ‘transvalue’, [val]}
 ‘trans’:
Transparent blobs; with no other input, transparency = 0.75 (1 is opaque, 0 is transparent/invisible)
 ‘scaledtransparency’:
Transparency is a function of voxel value, lower values are more transparent
 ‘transvalue’:
Followed by width value, e.g., 1. also ‘constanttrans’
OTHER OPTIONS:
 ‘smooth’:
Smooth blobs
‘contour’:
 Orientation:
‘sagittal’, ‘coronal’, ‘axial’
Outputs: [blobhan, cmaprange, mincolor, maxcolor]
All used in addblobs.m
Use addblobs; do not run this function directly unless you are programming with it.
See also: fmridisplay/addblobs, fmridisplay, fmridisplay/multi_threshold

fmridisplay_helper_functions.
resample_space
(dat, V, targetsp)¶ Usage: [resampled_dat, SPACEto] = resample_space(dat, V, [target V or target SPACE])
Inputs:  imdat:
3D volume data
 V:
spmstyle .mat structure for dat, e.g., from spm_vol
 V.mat:
 4 x 4 matrix of voxel sizes and mm coords for the bottom
back left vox
 V.dim:
dimensions of image
targetsp:
 target V:
spmstyle .mat structure defining space to transform to
—OR –
 target SPACE:
target SPACE, with Xmm, Ymm, Zmm; see map_to_world_space.m
Outputs:  resampled_dat:
data sampled in new space
SPACE structure, with fields:
 Xmm, Ymm, Zmm:
Meshgrid for voxel volume in mm space
 xcoords, ycoords, zcoords:
mm coordinates for rows, cols, slices
 V:
Vol info structure for image in new space
image_vector¶

@image_vector.
apply_mask
(dat, mask, varargin)¶ Apply a mask image (image filename or fmri_mask_image object) to an image_vector object stored in dat.
 This can be used to:
 Mask an image_vector or fmri_data object with a mask
 Obtain “pattern expression” for a weight map (entered as the mask, here) in a series of images stored in dat.
The mask or weight map does not have to be in the same space as the dat; it will be resampled to the space of the data in dat.
To extract pattern expression values for each ROI within a mask use extract_roi_averages()
Optional Inputs:  pattern_expression:
calculate and return the crossproduct of each image in dat and the values in the mask. This is useful if comparing expression values that are comprised of different datasets or differing number of voxels.
 correlation:
calculate the pearson correlation coefficient of each image in dat and the values in the mask.
 norm_mask:
normalize the mask weights by L2 norm, for patt expression only.
 ignore_missing:
use with pattern expression only. Ignore weights on voxels with zero values in test image. If this is not entered, the function will check for these values and give a warning.
 invert:
Invert the mask so that outofmask voxels are now in (using the mask as an ‘exclude mask’ rather than an includemask. If pattern expression is requested, the behavior is different, and it inverts the sign of inmask pattern weights.
Examples: [dat, mask] = apply_mask(dat, mask) [dat, mask] = apply_mask(dat, mask image name) [dat, mask] = apply_mask(dat, mask image vector object) [pattern_exp_values] = apply_mask(dat, weight map image, 'pattern_expression', 'ignore_missing') [pattern_exp_values] = apply_mask(dat, weight map image, 'pattern_expression', 'ignore_missing','correlation')
See also: extract_roi_averages, to get individual region averages / local pattern expression apply_nps, which does wholepattern and local regional expression

@image_vector.
check_image_filenames
(obj, varargin)¶ Check whether images listed in obj.fullpath actually exist
Usage: obj = check_image_filenames(obj, ['noverbose'])
Behavior:  If there are no file names, do nothing.
 If file names are entered and full path is not, attempt to find full path.
 If full path info is entered, check to see if files exist. Return output in obj.files_exist, and print a warning if only some exist.
Image names should be stored in .fullpath abbreviated image names may be stored in image_names.
Note: fullpath should have full path to each volume in a string matrixm, with trailing ,volume# for 4D images as per SPM style expanded list.
image_names should have image name only for each volume

@image_vector.
compare_space
(obj, obj2)¶ Compare spaces of two image_vector objects
Usage: function isdiff = compare_space(obj, obj2)
Returns 0 if same, 1 if different spaces, 2 if no volInfo info for one or more objects. 3 if same space, but different inmask voxels in .dat or volInfo.image_indx

@image_vector.
extract_gray_white_csf
(obj)¶ Extracts mean values (values) and top 5 component scores (components) from each of gray, white, and CSF masks. Images must be in standard MNI space for this to apply.
Usage: [values, components] = extract_gray_white_csf(obj)
Inputs:  obj:
an image_vector (e.g., fmri_data) object

@image_vector.
extract_roi_averages
(obj, mask, varargin)¶ This image_vector method a extracts and averages data stored in an fmri_data object from a set of ROIs defined in a mask. It is slightly different from the fmri_data method, as fmri_data has more fields.
This version requires the mask_image to be in the same space as the obj.
Regions to average over can be either regions of contiguous voxels bounded by voxels with values of 0 or NaN, which are considered nondata values, or regions defined by unique integer codes in the mask image (i.e., for atlas images with unique codes for each defined region.)
Mask/Atlas image does NOT have to be in the same space as the images to extract from. It will be remapped/resliced.
Extracted data is returned in single data format.
Usage: cl = extract_roi_averages(image_vector obj, mask, [average_over])
Inputs:  char array of strings containing 4D image file names (data extracted from these)
 mask_image to extract from.
Optional inputs:  average_over:
 Default: ‘contiguous_regions’ to average over contiguous voxels bounded by voxels of 0 or NaN (nondata values)
 Alt. option = ‘unique_mask_values’ to average over unique integer codes in the mask image (i.e., for atlas images with unique codes for each defined region)
Examples: imgs_to_extract_from = filenames('w*.nii','char'); mask_image = which('anat_lbpa_thal.img'); [cl, imgdat] = extract_image_data(imgs_to_extract_from, mask_image);
See also: For an nonobjectoriented alternative, see extract_image_data.m

@image_vector.
fastmontage
(dat, varargin)¶ Creates 3 separate montage views  ax, cor, sagg in a special figure window
Usage: fastmontage(dat, [myview], ['spacing', slicespacing], ['vertical'])
Examples: fastmontage(dat); fastmontage(dat, 'coronal'); fastmontage(dat, 'saggital', 'spacing', 10); fastmontage(dat, 'saggital', 'spacing', 10, 'vertical'); fastmontage(dat, 'saggital', 'slices_per_row', 12);

@image_vector.
flip
(dat, varargin)¶ Flips an image_vector object left to right
Optional Inputs: Input ‘mirror’ to make a symmetrical image, averaging the left and right hemispheres Examples: dat = flip(dat, ['mirror'])

@image_vector.
get_wh_image
(dat, wh)¶ For an image_vector with multiple images (cases, contrasts, etc.), select a subset.
Usage: function obj_out = get_wh_image(obj1, wh)
Inputs:  obj1:
An image_vector object
 wh:
An array indicating which images
Examples: my_image_vector = get_wh_image(dat, 3) %to get 3rd image my_image_vector = get_wh_image(dat, [1 3]) %to get 1st and 3rd image
check that wh is in range

@image_vector.
histogram
(obj)¶

@image_vector.
history
(dat)¶ Display history for image_vector object

@image_vector.
horzcat
(varargin)¶ Implements the horzcat ([a b]) operator on image_vector objects across voxels. Requires that each object has an equal number of columns and voxels
Usage: function s = horzcat(varargin)
Examples: c = [dat1 dat2];

@image_vector.
ica
(fmridat_obj, varargin)¶  Spatial ICA of an fmri_data object
 icadat = ica(fmridat_obj, [number of ICs to save])
 icadat is also an fmri_data object, with .dat field voxels x components
Notes:  icasig = W * mixedsig
 icasig = icadat.dat’ = W * fmridat_obj.dat’
A is scaled version of fmridat_obj.dat’ * icadat.dat
A and W are stored in additional_info field of icadat

@image_vector.
image_math
(obj1, varargin)¶ Perform simple mathematical and boolean operations on image objects
Usage: obj_out = image_math(obj1, [optional inputs, e.g., a 2nd object, keywords])
 For objects: Type methods(object_name) for a list of special commands
 Type help object_name.method_name for help on specific methods.
Inputs:  obj1:
An image_vector object
Optional Inputs:  obj2:
An additional image_vector object
 {‘add’, ‘plus’}:
 Keyword to perform imagewise addition of images in obj1
and obj2. Assumes these are paired/matched objects.
 {‘subtract’, ‘minus’}:
 Keyword to perform imagewise subtraction of images
in obj1 and obj2
 {‘cat’, ‘concatenate’}:
 Concatenate obj1 and obj2 imagewise. Requires same
number of voxels in both image sets. Returns effects codes of 1, 1 in obj_out.Y.
 {‘power’}:
 Keyword to raise data to power elementwise; obj.dat = obj.dat.^b;
Followed by exponent to apply (b)
Outputs:  obj_out:
The result  an image_vector object
DEFAULTS AND INPUTS ..

@image_vector.
image_similarity_plot
(obj, varargin)¶ Pointbiserial correlations between images in fmri_data obj and set of ‘spatial basis function’ images (e.g., ‘signatures’ or predefined maps)
Usage:
stats = image_similarity_plot(obj, 'average');
This is a method for an image_vector object
Inputs:  obj:
An image object with one or more images loaded
Optional inputs:  average:
Calculate average over images in obj with standard errors Useful if obj contains one image per subject and you want to test similarity with maps statistically. Default behavior is to plot each individual image.
 bucknerlab
Use 7 network parcellation from Yeo et al. as basis for comparisons
 kragelemotion
Use 7 emotionpredictive models from Kragel & LaBar 2015 for basis of comparisons
compareGroups Perform multiple oneway ANOVAs with group as a factor (one for each spatial basis); requires group as subsequent input
 group
Indicates group membership for each image
 noplot
Omits plot (print stats only)
Outputs:  stats:
 Structure including:
 .r, Correlations in [7 networks x images in obj] matrix
 .t, Ttest (if ‘average’ is specified)
 .line_handles Handles to polar plot lines so you can customize
 .fill_handles Handles to polar plot fills so you can customize
 .table_spatial, ANOVA table with subject as row factor and spatial basis as column factor (one way repeated measures ANOVA, requires ‘average’ to be specified)
 .multcomp_spatial, multiple comparisons of means across different spatial bases, critical value determined by TukeyKramer method (see multcompare)
 table_group
multiple oneway ANOVA tables (one for each spatial basis) with group as column factor (requires ‘average’ to be specified)
 multcomp_group
mutiple comparisons of means across groups, one output cell for each spatial basis, critical value determined by TukeyKramer method (see multcompare)
Examples: % corrdat is an fmri_data object with 18 images from searchlight % correlation in it. Then: stats = image_similarity_plot_bucknermaps(corrdat, 'average'); % t_diff is a thresholded statistic_image object stats = image_similarity_plot_bucknermaps(t_diff);
See also: tor_polar_plot
List dates and changes here, and author of changes 11/30/2015 (Phil Kragel)
 added anova (rm) comparing means across spatial bases
 added anova (1way) comparing means across groups for each spatial basis (e.g., for each buckner network)
 12/15/2015 (Phil Kragel)
 added option to omit plotting
DEFAULTS AND INPUTS ..

@image_vector.
image_similarity_plot_bucknermaps
(obj, varargin)¶ Pointbiserial correlations between images in fmri_data obj and Bucker Lab 7network maps, with polar plot
Usage: stats = image_similarity_plot_bucknermaps(obj, 'average');
This is a method for an image_vector object
Inputs:  obj:
An image object with one or more images loaded
Optional inputs:  average:
Calculate average over images in obj with standard errors Useful if obj contains one image per subject and you want to test similarity with maps statistically. Default behavior is to plot each individual image.
Outputs:  stats:
 Structure including:
 .r, Correlations in [7 networks x images in obj] matrix
 .t, Ttest (if ‘average’ is specified)
 .line_handles Handles to polar plot lines so you can customize
 .fill_handles Handles to polar plot fills so you can customize
Examples: % corrdat is an fmri_data object with 18 images from searchlight % correlation in it. Then: stats = image_similarity_plot_bucknermaps(corrdat, 'average'); % t_diff is a thresholded statistic_image object stats = image_similarity_plot_bucknermaps(t_diff);
See also: tor_polar_plot
DEFAULTS AND INPUTS ..

@image_vector.
interpolate
(dat, varargin)¶ Interpolate over missing values in image_vector object
Usage: dat = interpolate(dat, varargin)
Input: image_vector object (dat; e.g., an fmri_data object) Use when there are some missing values in the mask image Performs 3D linear interpolation to fill in all values in the original mask.
e.g., For a standard brain image space that is 91 x 109 x 91, you may have 300,000 inmask values. Only 150,000 of these may be defined in the image, however, and the rest are missing (0 or NaN). This function will return a dat image with nonmissing values for all 300,000 voxels (the “inmask” space). It will not return values for all voxels in the 91 x 109 x 91 space, however.
Note: This function does not upsample the data now, but could be extended to do so fairly easily.

@image_vector.
mean
(obj, varargin)¶ Create an image_vector object with mean values for each voxel (cols) across images (rows) of an fmri_data object.
Usage: function m = mean(obj, [optional args])
m is an image_vector object whose data contains the mean values.
Optional Inputs:  ‘write’, followed by file name
 ‘path’, followed by location for file (default = current directory)
 ‘orthviews’ > show orthviews for this image, same as orthviews(m)
 ‘histogram’ > show histogram for this image, same as histogram(m)
 ‘plot’ > do both
Examples: % If sdat is an fmri_data object with multiple images, m = mean(sdat, 'plot', 'write', anatmeanname, 'path', maskdir);

@image_vector.
minus
(obj1, obj2)¶ Implements the minus () operator on image_vector objects across voxels. Requires that each object has an equal number of columns and voxels

@image_vector.
montage
(image_obj, varargin)¶ Create a montage of an image_vector (or statistic_image or fmri_data) object
*Usage:
[fig_handle or o2 fmridisp object] = montage(image_obj, [optional arguments])
Optional inputs:  fmridisplay:
for fmridisplay object style montage [default]
 scnmontage:
for circa 2008style SCN lab montage for each image vector
Examples: o2 = montage(mask);

@image_vector.
orthviews
(image_obj, varargin)¶ Orthviews display (SPM) for CANlab image_vector (or fmri_data, statistic_image) object
*Usage:
orthviews(image_obj, varargin)
Optional Inputs:  posneg:
input generates orthviews using solid colors.
 largest_region:
to center the orthviews on the largest region in the image

@image_vector.
plot_current_orthviews_coord
(dat)¶ Retrieves and plots the image data series at the current crosshairs in spm_orthviews

@image_vector.
plus
(obj1, obj2)¶ Implements the plus (+) operator on image_vector objects across voxels. Requires that each object has an equal number of columns and voxels
Examples: c = dat1 + dat2;

@image_vector.
power
(obj, b)¶ Implements the power (^) operator on image_vector objects across voxels.
Examples: c = dat1^2;
Programmer Notes: Created 3/14/14 by Luke Chang ..

@image_vector.
preprocess
(obj, meth, varargin)¶ Preprocesses data in an fmri_data object
Data is observations (i.e., voxels, subjects) x images, so operating on the columns operates on images, and operating on the rows operates on voxels (or variables more generally) across images.
Inputs: meth: Options
 resid:
Residualize voxels with respect to covariates Uses obj.covariates, obj.dat. Adds intercept automatically. You can tell it to add the mean response per voxel back in: obj = preprocess(obj, ‘resid’, [add mean back in flag])
 hpfilter:
Highpass filter and remove run intercepts and first two images per run. Uses obj.dat, obj.images_per_session obj = preprocess(obj, ‘hpfilter’, HPlen in s, TR)
 windsorize:
Windsorize entire data matrix to 3 STD
 windsorizevoxels:
Windsorize each time series in data matrix to 3 STD
 session_outliers:
Identify sessionwise (runwise) outliers with significant based on mahalanobis distance with FDRcorrected Pvalues in chisquare test. Impute session grand mean outliers.
 outliers:
Identify outlier time points for each session based on mahalanobis distance (see above) across global mean for slices and spatial STD for slices, as in scn_session_spike_id. Outliers at 3 SD based on timeseries added to obj.covariates.
 outliers_rmssd:
Identify outlier time points for each session based on rootmeansquare successive differences between images (across voxels.) this is the std (across voxels) of the successive diffs across images. Outliers at 3.5 SD based on timeseries added to obj.covariates.
 smooth:
 Smoothed images with Gaussian filter
 obj = preprocess(obj, ‘smooth’, FWHM in mm)
NOTE SMOOTHING KERNEL MAY BE IN VOX, AS VOL INFO IS NOT PASSED IN
 interp_images:
Interpolate all voxels in a series of images specified by logical vector whout.
 obj = preprocess(obj, ‘interp_images’, whout);
Examples: % two complementary ways to get and plot outliers: dat = preprocess(dat, 'outliers', 'plot'); subplot(5, 1, 5); % go to new panel... dat = preprocess(dat, 'outliers_rmssd', 'plot');

@image_vector.
read_from_file
(obj)¶ Reads data from image filenames into obj.dat
Try obj = check_image_filenames(obj) first.
This is automatically called if you create a new image_vector object with names but do not directly enter data. e.g., the commands below will load data:
 name = ‘salientmap.nii’;
 img = image_vector(‘image_names’, name);

@image_vector.
rebuild_volinfo_from_dat
(dat, newdat)¶ Will rebuild volInfo (the image space, or sometimes “mask”) from a vectorized image. In other words, will rebuild dat.volInfo from newdat.
Also resets all voxels to be significant, if a statistic image
Input:  dat:
an image_vector
 newdat:
a vector that MUST be size of ENTIRE image (dat.volInfo.nvox)
Output:  dat:
dat.dat contains the nonzero values of newdat, and dat.volInfo is correctly defining the image space

@image_vector.
reconstruct_image
(obj)¶ Reconstruct a 3D or 4D image from image_vector object obj
voldata is and X x Y x Z x Images matrix vectorized_voldata is the same, with all voxels vectorized
This output has one element for every voxel in THE ENTIRE IMAGE, and so can be very memoryintensive. But it’s useful for lining up voxels across images with different masks/inmask voxels.
This function returns output in memory; see image_vector.write for writing .img files to disk.
Outputs:  voldata:
3D recon volume
 vectorized_voldata:
volume in column vetor, iimg_xxx function format
 xyz_coord_struct:
 has fields with coordinate information in mm (world) space
 x, y, z : vectors of coordinates in mm for each of the 3 dimensions of the image
 X, Y, Z : output matrices from meshgrid with mm coordinates, for volume visualization. These can be passed to surf or isocaps functions for volume visualization in world space (mm).

@image_vector.
remove_empty
(dat, varargin)¶ remove vox: logical vector of custom voxels to remove, VOX x 1
remove im: logical vector of custom images to remove, 1 x IMAGES
indices of removed data will be stored in removed_voxels and removed_images fields, to preserve ability to later reconstruct into 3D images
Usage: dat = remove_empty(dat, [logical vector of custom voxels to remove], [logical vector of imgs to remove])
Indicator vectors stored in: removed_images removed_voxels
See also: replace_empty force logical

@image_vector.
reparse_contiguous
(obj, varargin)¶ Reconstruct list of contiguous voxels in an image based on inimage voxel coordinates. Coordinates are taken from obj.volInfo.xyzlist.
Results are saved in obj.volInfo.cluster.
xyzlist can be generated from iimg_read_img, and is done automatically by objectoriented fMRI image classes (fmri_image, image_vector, statistic_image)
If ‘nonempty’ is entered as an optional argument, will use only voxels that are nonzero, nonnan in all columns of obj.dat.
Usage: obj = reparse_contiguous(obj, ['nonempty'])
.cluster and .xyzlist should both always be length v inmask voxels if ‘nonempty’ is entered, then .dat should be length v inmask voxels too

@image_vector.
replace_empty
(obj, varargin)¶ Replace empty/missing values in an image data object
Usage: obj = replace_empty(obj, [optional keywords])
Replace missing values in obj.dat stored in obj.removed_voxels and obj.removed_images with zeros. This returns obj.dat in a format that can be reconstructed into a 3D or 4D image matrix for brain visualization.
Optional keywords:  ‘voxels’ or ‘images’:
replace only missing voxels/images
See also: remove_empty, zeroinsert, nanremove, naninsert

@image_vector.
resample_space
(obj, sampleto, varargin)¶ Resample the images in an fmri_data object (obj) to the space of another image (sampleto; e.g., a mask image). Works for all image_vector objects.
Usage: obj = resample_space(obj, sampleto, [sampling method])
 Sampleto may be one of these:
 a volInfo structure (the image does not have to exist on the path)
 an image_vector, fmri_data, fmri_mask_image object
 a string with the name of an image
Can enter resampling method as optional input. Takes any input to interp3:
‘nearest’  nearest neighbor interpolation ‘linear’  linear interpolation (default) ‘spline’  spline interpolation ‘cubic’  cubic interpolation as long as the data is uniformly
spaced, otherwise the same as ‘spline’Examples: label_mask = fmri_data(which('atlas_labels_combined.img')); label_mask = resample_space(label_mask, ivec, 'nearest') % resamples and masks label image

@image_vector.
resample_time
(obj, source_TR, target_TR, varargin)¶ Resample the timeseries images (source_time_interval) in an fmri_data object (obj) to the different time series (target_time_interval). Works for all image_vector objects.
 obj = resample_time(obj, source_time_interval, target_time_interval, varargin)
Optional Inputs:  meth (Interpolation methods):
 You can enter resampling method as optional input. Takes any input to
‘nearest’  nearest neighbor interpolation
‘linear’  linear interpolation (default)
‘spline’  spline interpolation
 ‘cubic’  cubic interpolation as long as the data is uniformly
spaced, otherwise the same as ‘spline’
 slice:
A fraction of the slice timing correction. The default is 0.5, meaning if your TR is 2s, the time point of your TR image will be considered as the middle point of the TR bins. You can use this option to use different time points. If you are upsampling your data (i.e., your target TR is shorter than your source TR), you need to discard the first column of your data. This function will return the first time point data as NaN.
Examples: dat = fmri_data('/Volumes/RAID1/labdata/current/BMRK3/Imaging/spatiotemp_biomarker/STmarker1.img'); dat = resample_time(dat, 2, 1.3) % with options: dat = resample_time(dat, 2, 1.3, 'meth', 'linear', 'slice', .3)

@image_vector.
sagg_slice_movie
(dat, varargin)¶ Movie of successive differences (sagittal slice) Enter an image_vector or fmri_data object (usually with time series)
Usage: sagg_slice_movie(dat, [full_path_of_movie_output_file,image_skip_interval])
*Optional Inputs:
 movie_output_file:
 a char array detailing the full path to save the
 movie file
 image_skip_interval:
 An integer value describing the interval between images in each subsequent frame of the movie
(default = 1)
Examples: sagg_slice_movie(fmri_dat, ... '/Volumes/engram/labdata/fmri_data/Study1/Subj1/qc_images', 5) This would save an movie based on the images in fmri_dat to the above directory, with an interval of 5 images between each frame (so, the movie would show image 1, 6, 11, 16, etc)

@image_vector.
searchlight
(dat, varargin)¶ Run searchlight multivariate prediction/classification on an image_vector or fmri_data object OR two objects, for crossprediction.
Usage: [list outputs here] = function_name(list inputs here, [optional inputs]) [results_obj, stats, indx] = searchlight(dat, [optional inputs])
Features:  Runs searchlight with standard, predefined algorithms
 Customentry definition of holdout sets
 Can reuse searchlight spheres after initial definition
 Customentry definition of any spheres/regions of interest
 Uses Matlab’s parallel processing toolbox (parfor)
Type help image_vector.searchlight to display this help information
Inputs:  dat:
image_vector or fmri_data object with data
 dat.Y:
required: true outcomes for each observation (image) in dat
:Optional Inputs:* Keyword followed by input variable:
 r:
 searchlight radius, voxels
 dat2:
 second dataset, for crossprediction
 indx:
 sparse logical matrix. each COLUMN is index of inclusion sets for each region/sphere in searchlight This takes a long time to calculate, but can be saved and reused for a given mask
 holdout_set:
 Followed by integer vector of which observations belong to which holdout set, for crossvalidation. This is passed into fmri_data.predict.m. Default is empty.
Outputs:  results_obj:
fmri_data object with results maps
 stats:
selected statistics for each sphere in searchlight
 indx:
sparse logical matrix. each COLUMN is index of inclusion sets for each region/sphere in searchlight * this can be reused for all data with the same mask/structure. *
Examples: % Define a sensible graymatter mask: dat = fmri_data(which('scalped_avg152T1_graymatter.img')); dat = threshold(dat, [.8 Inf], 'rawbetween'); dat = trim_mask(dat); % Create fake data and holdout indicator index vector dat.dat = randn(dat.volInfo.n_inmask, 30); dat.Y = dat.dat(111111, :)' + .3 * randn(30, 1); holdout_set = ones(6, 1); for i = 2:5, holdout_set = [holdout_set; i*ones(6, 1)]; end % Run, and run again with existing indx pool = parpool(12); % initialize parallel processing (12 cores) [results_obj, stats, indx] = searchlight(dat, 'holdout_set', holdout_set); results_obj = searchlight(dat, 'holdout_set', holdout_set, 'indx', indx);
See also: region.m, fmri_data.predict.m
DEFAULTS AND INPUTS ..

@image_vector.
slices
(obj, varargin)¶ Create a montage of singleslice results for every image in an image_vector object
Usage: o = slices(obj, 'orientation', [orientation], 'slice', [slice_mm], 'nimages', [nimgs])
obj is an image_vector, fmri_data, or statistic_image object with multiple images (only the first 64 will display), which are stored as columns in its .dat field.
Optional Inputs:  orientation:
can be followed by ‘saggital’, ‘axial’, or ‘coronal’
 slice_mm:
is followed by the mm coord of the slice to display; default = 0
 nimgs:
can be followed by the number of images to display, 1:nimgs
 names:
is followed by a cell array of names for the images.
 color:
is followed by color vector or string specification. default is colormapped with split colors (hot/cool) for pos and neg effects.
 outline:
is followed by a color vector for outline around blobs.
The output, o, is an fmridisplay object.
This function uses fmridisplay objects, and may be memoryintensive for older computers.
Common Errors:
This function uses the volInfo.cluster field. If you create a mask in an ad hoc way, this field may not be updated. use this to fix:
 mask = reparse_contiguous(mask);
Examples: slices(dat); slices(dat, 'orientation', 'axial'); slices(dat, 'slice', 5); % display sagg at x = 5 o = slices(dat, 'names', terms); % use 'terms' var as names o2 = slices(all_chi2_images, 'orientation', 'saggital', 'slice', 0);

@image_vector.
surface
(obj, varargin)¶ [all_surf_handles, pcl, ncl] = surface(obj)
 Usage:
 [all_surf_handles, pcl, ncl] = surface(r, [‘cutaways’, any optional inputs to surface_cutaway])
This function uses region.surface to create surface figures. See help region.surface for options.
Examples: % Create an initial surface plot from an fmri_data object: han = surface(regionmasks{2}); % Now add a second region in green: cluster_surf(region(regionmasks{2}), {[0 1 0]}, han, 5); % Use optional arguments taken by surface_cutaway: poscm = colormap_tor([1 .3 0], [1 1 0]); % orange to yellow [all_surf_handles, pcl, ncl] = surface(t, 'cutaway', 'ycut_mm', 30, 'pos_colormap', poscm, 'existingfig'); [all_surf_handles2, pcl, ncl] = surface(t, 'foursurfaces', 'pos_colormap', poscm, 'neg_colormap', negcm); [all_surf_handles2, pcl, ncl] = surface(t, 'foursurfaces', 'existingfig', 'color_upperboundpercentile', 95, 'color_lowerboundpercentile', 5, 'neg_colormap', colormap_tor([0 0 1], [.3 0 .5])); % Use mediation_brain_surface_figs and remake colors all_surf_handles = mediation_brain_surface_figs([]); surface(t2, 'cutaway', 'surface_handles', all_surf_handles, 'color_upperboundpercentile', 95, 'color_lowerboundpercentile', 5, 'neg_colormap', colormap_tor([0 0 1], [.2 0 .5]));

@image_vector.
threshold
(obj, input_threshold, thresh_type, varargin)¶ Threshold image_vector (or fmri_data or fmri_obj_image) object based on raw threshold values. For statistical thresholding, convert to a statistic_image object and see the threshold method for that object.
Usage: obj = threshold(obj, input_threshold, thresh_type, [optional arguments])
This is a method for an image_vector object
Thresholding is not reversible. For statistic_image objects it is.
 For objects: Type methods(object_name) for a list of special commands
 Type help object_name.method_name for help on specific methods.
Inputs:  obj:
image_vector object
 input_threshold:
Vector of 2 values defining data value bounds at which to threshold, e.g., [0 Inf] or [3 3]
 thresh_type:
String: ‘rawbetween’ or ‘rawoutside’
Optional Inputs: Argument or argument followed by value:
 k:
Followed by extent threshold cluster size, default = 1
 trim_mask:
Reduce the mask in obj.voInfo based on thresholding
 noverbose:
Suppress verbose output
Outputs:  obj:
thresholded image_vector object
Examples: % Retain positive values, cluster extent > 100 voxels obj = threshold(obj, [0 Inf], 'rawbetween', 'k', 100) % Retain voxels with absolute value > 3 obj = threshold(obj, [3 3], 'rawoutside')
See also: statistic_image.threshold, statistic_image.multi_threshold

@image_vector.
trim_mask
(obj)¶ Exclude empty voxels from mask information in obj.volInfo structure, and remake obj.volInfo

@image_vector.
union
(dat1, dat2, outputname)¶ Union and intersection masks for two image_vector objects
Usage: [dat_union, dat_intersection] = union(dat1, dat2, outputname) dat = union(dat1, dat2, outputname) outputname = character array name for union image INCLUDE .img at the end.

@image_vector.
write
(obj, varargin)¶ Write an image_vector object to an Analyze image. Option to write thresholded image, for statistic_image objects.
obj.dat should contain data, with one COLUMN for each 3D frame in the 4D image to be written.
Usage: write(obj) > writes to the image(s) specified in obj.fullpath write(obj, 'thresh') > for statistic_image objects, writes thresholded write(obj, 'fname', '~/Documents/test.nii') > writes the image(s) to specific path
Optional Inputs:  mni:
resample image to standard MNI FOV (91x109x91) uses mri_data.resample_space
 keepdt:
output image will be keep original data type (default = float32)
 fname:
writes out image to specific file name. ‘fname’ must be followed by image name with path
Examples: % If m is an image_vector object m.X(m.X < .12) = 0; % apply an % arbitrary but reasonable custom threshold orthviews(m); % write the thresholded image to disk: anatmeanname = 'mean_gray_matter_mask.img'; m.filename = anatmeanname; m.fullpath = fullfile(maskdir, anatmeanname); write(m)
region¶

@region.
check_extracted_data
(cl)¶  Checks the data, just in case of space/programming issues,
 by reextracting the region average data from 5 random regions using spm_get_data.m, and compares it to the alreadysaved values
Inputs:  cl:
must be a valid region object (see region.m) and cl(1).source_images must still be on the path.
You should not need to run this regularly – but you should if you suspect things have gone awry.

@region.
extract_data
(r, data_obj)¶ Extract data from image_vector object (data_obj) for voxels specified by a region object (r). Returns extracted data and averages.
Usage: region_obj = extract_data(region_obj, data_obj)
Type methods(region) for a list of special commands for region object Type help object_name.method_name for help on specific methods.
Features: data_obj does not have to be in the same space, uses mm coordinates Inputs:  r:
a region object
 data_obj:
an image_vector or fmri_data object to extract data from does not have to be in the same space, uses mm coordinates
Outputs:  r:
a region object, with data attached

@region.
merge
(cl, wh_merge)¶ Merge two or more regions together in a region object. Combines fields from all clusters in the named series with the first one in the series.
Usage: wh_merge = [3 4]; cl = merge(cl, wh_merge)

@region.
posneg_separate
(cl, varargin)¶ Separate a region object (cl) into clusters with positive and negative peak values, based on max (peak) value in .val or .Z field (default = val)
Usage: [pcl, ncl] = posneg_separate(cl, ['Z'])
Returns pcl and ncl, region structures with positive and negativevalued peaks, respectively, copied from the original cl input.
Optional Input:  Z:
To use .Z field
Note: You may have to use reparse_continguous to get this to work right.
r = reparse_continguous(r); [pcl, ncl] = posneg_separate(r);

@region.
region2imagevec
(cl)¶ Convert a region object to an image_vector object, replacing the voxels and reconstructing as much info as possible.
The .dat field of the new “ivecobj” is made from the cl.all_data field. if this is empty, uses cl.val field, then cl.Z as a backup. Mask information is available in ivecobj.volInfo.
Usage: ivecobj = region2imagevec(cl)

@region.
region2imagevec2tmp
(cl)¶ Convert a region object to an image_vector object, replacing the voxels and reconstructing as much info as possible.
The .dat field of the new “ivecobj” is made from the cl.all_data field. if this is empty, uses cl.val field, then cl.Z as a backup. Mask information is available in ivecobj.volInfo.
Usage: ivecobj = region2imagevec(cl)

@region.
region2struct
(cl)¶ Convert a region object to a simple structure, primarily for compatibility with other, older CANlab tools.
See also: cluster2region, for the reverse transformation

@region.
reparse_continguous
(cl)¶ Redefine regions in region object based on contiguous blobs
Usage: clout = reparse_continguous(cl)

@region.
subdivide_by_atlas
(r, varargin)¶ Usage: r = subdivide_by_atlas(r, [atlas name])
Inputs:  r:
a region object, defined using region(mask)
 atlas name:
Optional mask image with integer codes defining inmask regions. Default is ‘atlas_labels_combined.img’
Output: A region object with separate clusters for each contiguous blob, subdivided by regions labeled in atlas.
Example: r = subdivide_by_atlas(r); r(cat(1, r.numVox) < 20) = []; % get rid of small regions cluster_orthviews(r, 'unique');

@region.
subdivide_by_local_max
(r, varargin)¶ Subdivide regions into subregions based on local peak Zscores/maxima
Usage: subregions = subdivide_by_local_max(r, ['mm_distance', value], ['noorthviews'])
 For objects: Type methods(object_name) for a list of special commands
 Type help object_name.method_name for help on specific methods.
Optional Inputs:  mm_distance:
Followed by mm distance minimum for dividing subclusters
 noorthviews:
Suppress display of orthviews
Outputs:  subregions:
subdivided region object
See also: region.subdivide_by_atlas, subclusters_from_local_max, cluster_local_maxima

@region.
surface
(r, varargin)¶ Surface method for region object  renders blobs on multiple types of 3D surface
Usage: [all_surf_handles, pcl, ncl] = surface(r, ['cutaways', any optional inputs to surface_cutaway])
Inputs:  r:
A region object
 cutaway:
 String command for rendering cutaways instead of the default
 default is call to mediation_brain_surface_figs
 cutaways calls surface_cutaway
 all optional arguments are passed to surface_cutaway
 rightsurface:
 String command for rendering a right frontal cortical
view complementary to ‘cutaways’
 foursurfaces:
Compact plots of four surfaces
Other optional inputs to surface_cutaway e.g., ‘pos_colormap’
Outputs:  all_surf_handles:
surface patch handles
 pcl:
region object with positiveonly clusters
 ncl:
region object with negativeonly clusters
Example: % Use surface(r), with optional arguments taken by surface_cutaway: poscm = colormap_tor([1 .3 0], [1 1 0]); % orange to yellow [all_surf_handles, pcl, ncl] = surface(r, 'cutaway', 'ycut_mm', 30, 'pos_colormap', poscm, 'existingfig'); [all_surf_handles2, pcl, ncl] = surface(r, 'foursurfaces', 'pos_colormap', poscm, 'neg_colormap', negcm); [all_surf_handles2, pcl, ncl] = surface(r, 'foursurfaces', 'existingfig', 'color_upperboundpercentile', 95, 'color_lowerboundpercentile', 5, 'neg_colormap', colormap_tor([0 0 1], [.4 0 .7])); % use mediation_brain_surface_figs and remake colors all_surf_handles = mediation_brain_surface_figs([]); surface(r, 'cutaway', 'surface_handles', all_surf_handles, 'color_upperboundpercentile', 95, 'color_lowerboundpercentile', 5, 'neg_colormap', colormap_tor([0 0 1], [.2 0 .5]));
:See also:*
surface_cutaway, cluster_surf, mediation_brain_surface_figs ..
DEFAULTS AND INPUTS

@region.
table
(cl, varargin)¶ Print a table of all regions in a region object (cl)
Usage: [poscl, negcl] = table(cl, [optional inputs])
Optional inputs:  k:
Print only regions with k or more contiguous voxels
 nosep:
do not separate cl with pos and neg effects based on peak in .val
 names:
name clusters before printing to table and output; saves in .shorttitle field
 forcenames:
force naming of cl by removing existing names in .shorttitle field
Outputs: Returns region objects for cl with pos and neg effects, limited by size if entered and named if entered as optional input
statistic_image¶

@statistic_image.
conjunction
(si1, si2, varargin)¶ Returns the conjunction of two statistic_images. considers positive and negative activations separately.
Inputs: Two thresholded statistic images. Optional 3rd argument: 1 to get only negative conjunction, or 1 to get only positive conjunction
Output: A statistic_image with all voxels suprathreshold (in the same direction) in both input images. Voxel values are set to 1 and 1, to indicate direction.

@statistic_image.
convert2mask
(stats_image_obj)¶ Converts each image in a statistic_image object into a mask object, based on significant voxels in the .sig field.
Example: cl = region(convert2mask(timg), group)

@statistic_image.
multi_threshold
(dat, varargin)¶ Multiple threshold function for statistic_image object for visualization
Usage: [o2, sig, pcl, ncl] = multi_threshold(dat, [optional inputs])
Inputs:  dat:
a statistic_image object
Optional Inputs:  poscolors:
followed by cell array of colors for positive values, one per thresh
 negcolors:
followed by cell array of colors for negative values, one per thresh
 thresh:
followed vector of pvalue thresholds, one per thresh
 sizethresh:
 followed by vector of cluster sizes, one per thresh
 this ‘prunes’ by default, so sizes after first can be 1 voxel
 Default thresholds: thresh = [.001 .005 .05], 10 voxels at .001, “pruned”
 nodisplay:
suppress fmridisplay
 o2:
 followed by an existing fmridisplay object
 will remove blobs and reuse montages
Outputs:  o2:
handle to fmridisplay object created by default
 sig:
 vector of significant voxels at each thresh, for each region
 cell array of images in object with matrix of values
for each threshold
 pcl:
 positive valued clusters cell, one cell per threshold
 FIRST image in object only
 pass into mediation_brain_surface_figs.m
 ncl:
 positive valued clusters cell, one cell per threshold
 FIRST image in object only
 pass into mediation_brain_surface_figs.m
Examples: [o2, sig, poscl, negcl] = multi_threshold(hr_intercept, 'nodisplay'); mediation_brain_surface_figs(poscl, negcl); % Create empty montage set and (re)use it: o2 = canlab_results_fmridisplay([], 'compact2', 'noverbose'); o2 = multi_threshold(out.t, 'o2', o2);
See also: mediation_brain_surface_figs, iimg_multi_threshold, mediation_brain_results

@statistic_image.
orthviews
(image_obj, varargin)¶ Orthviews display (SPM) for CANlab object
Usage: cl = orthviews(image_object) % OR cl = orthviews(image_object, handle_number of existing orthviews)
Output is clusters structure (see also region.m)
Pass in ‘largest_region’ to center the orthviews on the largest region in the image
Example: % Ttest, Construct a stats_image object, threshold and display: statsimg = ttest(fmridat, .001, 'unc'); % Rethreshold and display: statsimg = threshold(statsimg, .000001, 'unc'); orthviews(statsimg); statsimg = threshold(statsimg, .01, 'fdr'); orthviews(statsimg); % Create an orthviews and view at multiple thresholds in different panes: overlay = which('SPM8_colin27T1_seg.img'); spm_check_registration(repmat(overlay, n, 1)); statsimg = ttest(fmridat); statsimg = threshold(statsimg, .001, 'unc'); orthviews(statsimg, 'handle', 1); statsimg = threshold(statsimg, .000001, 'unc'); orthviews(statsimg, 'handle', 2);
See also: statistic_image.multi_threshold

@statistic_image.
reparse_contiguous
(obj, varargin)¶ Reconstruct list of contiguous voxels in an image based on inimage voxel coordinates. Coordinates are taken from obj.volInfo.xyzlist. Results are saved in obj.volInfo.cluster. xyzlist can be generated from iimg_read_img, and is done automatically by objectoriented fMRI image classes (fmri_image, image_vector, statistic_image)
Usage: obj = reparse_contiguous(obj, ['nonempty'])
If ‘nonempty’ is entered as an optional argument, will use only voxels that are nonzero, nonnan in the first column of obj.dat.
The statistic_image object version of reparse_contiguous uses the significance of the first image in the object (obj.sig(:, 1)) as a filter as well, so clustering will be based on the latest threshold applied. it is not usually necessary to enter ‘nonempty’.
Example: % Given timg, a statistic_image object: test = reparse_contiguous(timg, 'nonempty'); cl = region(test, 'contiguous_regions'); cluster_orthviews(cl, 'unique')

@statistic_image.
select_one_image
(obj, wh)¶

@statistic_image.
threshold
(stats_image_obj, input_threshold, thresh_type, varargin)¶ Threshold statistic_image object based on statistical threshold values.
Usage: stats_image_obj = threshold(stats_image_obj, pvalthreshold or other thresh, thresh_type, ['k', extent_thresh])
This is a method for an statistic_image object. Thresholding is reversible.
 For objects: Type methods(object_name) for a list of special commands
 Type help object_name.method_name for help on specific methods.
Inputs:  stats_image_obj:
statistic_image object
 input_threshold:
[pvalthreshold or other thresh] A numeric value corresponding to the threshold desired. Either a pvalue or a range of raw values, depending on the threshold type.
 thresh_type:
 Threshold type which can be one of:
 ‘fdr’ : FDRcorrect based on pvalues already stored in image .p field
 ‘fwe’ : FWEcorrect; not implemented
 ‘bfr’ : Bonferroni correction (FWE).
 ‘unc’ : Uncorrected pvalue threshold: pvalue, e.g., .05 or .001
 ‘rawbetween’ : threshold raw image values; save those > input_threshold(1) and < input_threshold(2)
 ‘rawoutside’ : threshold raw image values; save those < input_threshold(1) or > input_threshold(2)
Optional Inputs:  k:
Followed by cluster extent in voxels: extentbased thresholding of any of the above
 noverbose:
Suppress verbose output
 mask:
 Followed by name of mask or fmri_mask_image object
 this will affect corrected significance levels
Outputs:  stats_image_obj:
thresholded statistic_image object
Example: % Retain sig pos or neg results at p < .001 uncorrected, cluster extent >= 100 voxels obj = threshold(obj, .001, 'unc', 'k', 100) % Retain sig pos or neg results at q < .05 FDR, cluster extent >= 10 voxels obj = threshold(obj, .05, 'fdr', 'k', 10) % Retain voxels with absolute statistic/data value > 3 obj = threshold(obj, [3 3], 'rawoutside') dat = threshold(dat, 0.001, 'unc', 'k', 35, 'mask', which('scalped_avg152T1_graymatter_smoothed.img')); dat = threshold(dat, 0.001, 'unc', 'k', 35, 'mask', maskobj);
See also: image_vector.threshold, statistic_image.multi_threshold
Toolboxes¶
Cluster_contig_region_tools¶

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
anat_subclusters
(cl, varargin)¶ Clusters voxels within ‘clusters’ structure based on anatomical locations in space. Outputs subgroups of smaller clusters.
Usage: clout = anat_subclusters(cl,[resume at],[output cl to resume])

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster2region
(cl)¶ Transform a CANlab/SCANlab “clusters” structure into a region object, the standard in 2011 toolbox functions and beyond.

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster2subclusters
(cl_in, class)¶ Take a single cluster cl_in and separate into subclusters based on vector of integers class
Class must code unique subclusters subcluster order is only preserved if class contains all integers from 1 to nclasses:
i.e., class 3 will only be in subcluster 3 if there are no missing class numbers in class

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_close_enough
(cl_match_to, cl_match, mind)¶ Finds whether each cluster center in cl_match is within mind mm of a cluster center in cl_match_to.
Useful for selecting a list of clusters that are not close to another list to, e.g., make a table of. or this could be used to find clusters in a set of correlated clusters that are close to centers in activated clsuters.

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_export_pngs
(cl, useexisting, overlay, xhairson)¶ Save png images of SPM orthviews windows for each cluster in a set (cl structure)
Usage: cl = cluster_export_pngs(cl,[useexisting],[overlayimagename],[xhairson])
names from cl(x).shorttitle are used useexisting is optional: 1 uses existing orthviews display (default), 0 creates a new one with the clusters
Example: % use existing cluster_export_pngs(cl, 1, EXPT.overlay);

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_find_index
(cl, varargin)¶ Ever see an interesting blob when visualizing a clusters structure, but don’t know which index number in the clusters structure vector it corresponds to?
With this function, find the index number of the closest cluster to one you specify graphically by clicking on.
Usage: function [wh_cluster, min_distance] = cluster_find_index(cl, [keep display flag, 1/0])

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_interp
(cl, varargin)¶  Interpolates voxels and mm in a clusters structure (cl) to match the
image dimensions and voxel sizes of a target mask image.
Usage: function cl = cluster_interp(cl,maskimg,[keep sep clusters flag])
Example: cl = cluster_interp(cl,maskimg,1); %default mask 2 x 2 x 2, SPM2 default: cl = cluster_interp(cl,[],1);
maskimg = which(‘scalped_avg152T1_graymatter_smoothed.img’);

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_intersection
(varargin)¶ Computes the intersection of the clusters passed in.
Usage: intersect_cl = cluster_intersection(cl1, cl2, cl3, ...) % simple intersection cl = cluster_intersection(robust0001_poscl(2), robust0002_poscl(4), robust0003_poscl(17)); % intersection between sets of clusters % alternatively, see cluster_set_intersection.m cl = cluster_intersection(clusters2CLU(robust0001_poscl), clusters2CLU(robust0002_poscl));
 Note:
 Only works with single clusters. To compute the intersection between sets of clusters, use cluster_set_intersection()

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_local_maxima
(cl, dthresh, verbose)¶ Clusters are chosen so that they must be at least dthresh mm apart default is 10 mm
Usage: [xyz, XYZmm, Z, class] = cluster_local_maxima(cl, [dthresh], [verbose])
verbose output: 1/0, default is 0
additional optional outputs (slower):
class: vector of integers for which subcluster this cluster belongs to

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_set_intersection
(varargin)¶ Computes the intersection of the sets of clusters passed in.
Usage: intersect_cl = cluster_set_intersection(cls1, cls2, cls3, ...) cl = cluster_intersection(robust0001_poscls, robust0002_poscls, robust0003_poscls);
 Note:
 Designed for sets of clusters. To compute the intersection between individual clusters, use cluster_intersection(). cluster_set_intersection will work, but is not needed.

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_table
(clusters, varargin)¶ Print output of clusters in table
Option to print text labels from Carmack atlas.
Database loading is done from talairach_info.mat which should be in the path.
To speed up performance, load talairach_info.mat in the base workspace or calling function and include xyz, L3 and L5 as inputs to cluster_table.
Example: % create subclusters on the fly, prompt for labels cluster_table(cl); % no subclusters, no labels cluster_table(cl, 0, 0); % do subclusters, no labels cluster_table(cl, 1, 0); create subclusters on the fly, do labels cluster_table(cl, 1, 1); % 3 input variables following 'tal_info' are interpreted as xyz, L3, % and L5 from talairach_info.mat. cluster_table(..., 'tal_info', xyz, L3, L5); % loads labels from taldata.mat (Talairach database) instead of % talairach_info.mat. Note that you should use the 'tal_info' call % above if xyz, L3, and L5 have already been loaded to theworkspace % from taldata.mat. Also, if the talairach database is being used, % your cl.XYZmm values MUST correspond to the TALAIRACH, NOT MNI, % database, or the labels will be innaccurate. cluster_table(..., 'talairach'); % print table to ASCII file, 'filename', instead of to the matlab % command window. cluster_table(..., 'writefile','filename'); % any set of inputs from above, also print clusters.myfield in output cluster_table(..., 'myfield');

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
cluster_table_successive_threshold
(cl, varargin)¶ Cluster table of a cell array of clusters cl{1} cl{2} etc. Prints table of cl{1} and then any additional regions in cl{2:n} that are not within 10 mm of a previously printed cluster
Also: merges clusters in set within 10 mm
Table titles are hardcoded to be consistent with metaanalysis toolbox right now
Usage: cl = cluster_table_successive_threshold(cl,[sizethr])
Example: % Print a series of tables with custom fields: cl = cluster_table_successive_threshold(cl,5,'myfield1','myfield2')
Use merge_nearby_clusters and subclusters_from_local_max or some other way to get clusters appropriately separated and distanced before running. see Meta_cluster_tools for code to run this for metaanalysis.

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
clusters2CLU
(clusters, varargin)¶ Inputting an M matrix will transform the coordinates by that M, to convert between voxel sizes, etc.
Usage: function CLU = clusters2CLU(clusters,[opt] M)

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
clusters2mask
(cl, V, varargin)¶ This function has 2 modes! If V is a structure:
Usage: [m,V,cl] = clusters2mask(cl,V,[opt: write Zscores])
Converts clusters structure to a mask image, given V structure with V.mat field. V.mat is an SPM mat file. V.dim is dims of image uses cl.XYZmm m is mask img data, V is mask vol info.
Also replaces cl.XYZ (voxels)
If V is a vector of mask dimensions: converts clusters to mask image using existing XYZ and dims of mask
See also: voxels2mask, for a faster function that uses XYZ voxel coords Example: % Save an image file with just one cluster from a set (#7 in this ex.) cl = mask2clusters('roi_group1.img'); V = spm_vol('roi_group1.img'); % we need .mat and .dim from this, or % just dim [m,V,cl] = clusters2mask(cl(7),struct('mat',cl(1).M,'dim',V.dim)); %or [m,V,cl] = clusters2mask(cl(7),V); clusters2mask(cl,struct('mat',V.mat,'dim',V.dim),0,'spm2_hy.img'); %for SPM5: clusters2mask(cl,struct('mat',V.mat,'dim',V.dim, 'dt', V.dt),0,'spm2_hy.img'); clusters2mask(cl, struct('mat',MC_Setup.volInfo.mat,'dim',MC_Setup.volInfo.dim, 'dt', MC_Setup.volInfo.dt),0,'acc_roi_mask.img');

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
image2clusters
(varargin)¶ Menudriven function for getting clusters from an image file (e.g., a timage)
Usage: cl = image2clusters([overlay image name])
Can also return clusters active in two contrasts, sorted by increases in both, decreases in both, inc in first, dec in first useful for testing whether something is both activated and correlated! e.g., see active_plus_corr_scatterplot_plugin
% :Example:
[pospos,negneg,posneg,negpos] = image2clusters(overlay)

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
mask2clusters
(P, varargin)¶ Extracts clusters and con img data from mask
Use with mask_intersection.m
To get clusters but not extract data, enter only one argument.
To get clusters and choose extraction imgs with the GUI, enter an empty [] 2nd argument.
Usage: [clusters,CLU,subclusters] = mask2clusters(img mask file with voxels,[imgs to extract data from],[df])
DOES NOT CONVERT BETWEEN DIFFERENT VOXEL SIZES AND POSITIONS BETWEEN IMNAMES AND SPM/VOL STRUCTS
See also: roi_probe If no imgs are entered, Zscores are values from mask
If df is entered, values in mask img are converted to Zscores with spm_t2z.m
If extract img names are empty and df is entered, assume we’re using values from mask as tvalues and convert to Zscores
WARNING: for spm2 compatibility, ABSOLUTE VALUES of voxel sizes are returned; e.g., ignores analyze flipping in SPM2.
% Matlab 6.5/OSX bug gives seg fault or something if mask is too big.
Example: cl = mask2clusters('myimage.img',[img string mtx],[]); % no zscore conversion, extracts data from [img string mtx] cl = mask2clusters('rob_tmap_0002_filt_t_305_k10_neg.img') % This one works with alreadyloaded image data and a mat matrix: V = spm_vol('rob_tmap_0002_filt_t_305_k10_neg.img'); dat = spm_read_vols(V); cl = mask2clusters(dat,V.mat);

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
mask2struct
(maskname, varargin)¶ Usage: function V = mask2struct(maskname,crit_t,cl_size)
Inputs:  maskname:
name of spmT, con, or filtered image without .img extension, in single quotes
Optional Inputs:  crit_t, cl_size::
critical t and cluster size at which to mask
Outputs: structure compatible with SPM viewing and with cluster definition algorithm tor_extract_rois
Example: % to extract clusters: [clusters] = tor_extract_rois(maskname,V,V); % to display: spm_image (and choose anatomical) spm_orthviews('AddBlobs',1,V.XYZ,V.Z,V.mat) spm_orthviews('AddColouredBlobs',1,V.XYZ,V.Z,V.mat,[0 0 1]) % to overlay on Talairach atlas fixed_TSU(clusters)

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
merge_clusters
(c2m, subcl)¶ Function for synchronizing the field list of cluster structures and merging them
Usage: subclusters = merge_clusters(clusters_to_match, subclusters_to_change)

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
merge_nearby_clusters
(cl, thr, varargin)¶ Merge sets of clusters whose centers are all within thr mm of each other uses parcel_complete_sets.m
Usage: newcl = merge_nearby_clusters(cl, thr)
Example: % The command below runs the function recursively until all clusters are % greater than thr mm apart newcl = merge_nearby_clusters(cl, thr, 'recursive')

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
subclusters_from_local_max
(cl, dist_thresh)¶ Breaks apart a cluster into smaller clusters
Usage: subcl = subclusters_from_local_max(cl, dist_thresh)

Cluster_contig_region_tools.
xyz2clusters
(xyz, P)¶ Converts a 3column x, y, z list of mm coordinates to a clusters structure given P, the filename of an analyze .img file to provide dimensions and voxel sizes.
Usage: function cl = xyz2clusters(xyz,P)
 Uses this info from the image:
 VOL.M  spmstyle mat matrix
 VOL.VOX  voxel sizes
 SPM.Z  now 1s; could stores values in the original image in clusters.Z
 The following is created internally:
 SPM.XYZmm  mm coords, you input these
 SPM.XYZ  voxel coords
diagnostics¶

diagnostics.
BiasPowerloss
(tc, X, c, beta, df, z, pval)¶ Calculate the approximate bias and power loss due to mismodeling This works with the Mismodeling Toolbox described by Loh et al. 2008
Usage: [b bias pl Pc Pe] = BiasPowerloss(tc, X, c, beta, df, z, pval)
Inputs:  tc:
fMRI time course
 X:
design matrix for multiple regression
 c:
contrast of interest
 beta:
(mismodeled) beta value
 df:
degrees of freedom
 z:
pvalue calculated from ResidScan
 pval:
cutoff pvalue
Outputs:  b:
updated (correct) beta value
 bias:
bias
 pl:
power loss
References: Loh, J. M., Lindquist, M. A., Wager, T. D. (2008). Residual Analysis for Detecting Mismodeling in fMRI. Statistica Sinica, 18, 14211448.
Update design matrix using correct model

diagnostics.
ResidScan
(res, FWHM)¶ Calculates P(M>=t) where M is the max value of the smoothed residuals. In this implementation the residuals are smoothed using a Gaussian kernel.
Usage: function [z sres] = ResidScan(res, FWHM)
Inputs:  res:
residual time course
 FWHM:
Full Width Half Maximum (in time units)
Outputs:  z:
pvalues
 sres:
smoothed residuals
 sres_ns:
smoothed residuals (non standardized)

diagnostics.
add_nuisance_to_SPMcfg
(Xn)¶  Adds a matrix Xn to the end of covariates of interest in
xX structure in SPMcfg.mat
Usage: function add_nuisance_to_SPMcfg(Xn)
Inputs:  oXn:
should contain ALL nuisance covariates and intercepts as in output of tor_get_physio.m
This function is automatically run by tor_get_physio.m

diagnostics.
batch_efficiency
(dwcard)¶ Start in directory above individual model/results directories
Usage: function batch_efficiency(dwcard)
Inputs:  dwcard:
is a wildcard for directories to probe, e.g., ‘subject*’

diagnostics.
batch_t_histograms
(varargin)¶ Creates page(s) of t stat histograms for each subject level contrast in set of subject level analyses using image_intensity_histograms.
Usage: batch_t_histograms([options])
Optional Inputs:  {analysis_dirs}:
run on all contrasts in directories of cell array {analysis_dirs}
(DEFAULT: use all directories in working directory containing spmT_*.img files)
 ‘o’, ‘output_directory’:**
specify output directory to contain saved .png files

diagnostics.
canlab_qc_metrics1
(epi_names, mask_name, varargin)¶ Calculate quality control metrics on a 4D EPI Analyze or Nifti file
Standard CANlab usage is to enter a single 4D ravol* for one run, and the brain mask implicit_mask.img created in canlab_preproc.m
Inputs:  epi_names:
Names of (usually one) 4D EPI file, in cell or string, full path
 mask_name:
 Name of brain mask image, string, full path
IF EMPTY: Uses implict masking (better) and calculates ghost/signal outside mask
Optional Inputs:  noplot:
skip plots
 noverbose:
skip output printout to screen
 printfile:
followed by name of file to print output to, full path
 noheader:
suppress printing of header (var names) in output
Missing values and basic info:  num_images:
number of images
 missing_vox:
Voxels in mask with NaN values or zero values at every time point
 missing_images:
Images with NaN values or zero values at every voxel
 missing_values:
NaN or zero values in valid images / voxels. Zeros could be interpreted as values of zero in analysis, causing artifacts in results if these are actually invalid values.
Missing voxels will often be ignored in analyses in most software, but Missing images/values could cause problems
Basic signal to noise:  percmeanghost:
mean signal outside the mask / mean total signal
 mean_snr:
mean Cohen’s d (signal/noise, SNR) across time (temporal SNR) within the mask.
Mean divided by standard deviation across time at each voxel, averaged. Higher is better.
 snr_inhomogeneity:
standard deviation of SNR within the mask. Lower is better.
 snr_inhomogeneity95:
95% confidence range for SNR within the mask. Lower is better.
 rms_successive_diffs:
Essentially a highpass filtered version of SNR, expressed as a fraction of the overall mean and averaged across voxels. Lower is better.
 rms_successive_diffs_inhomogeneity:
standard deviation of the above across voxels. Lower is better.
Leftright asymmetry:  signal_rms_asymmetry:
Voxelwise left/right root mean square asymmetry in mean signal across time, expressed as a fraction of the mean SNR. Reflects both gross inhomogeneity and noise. Lower is better.
 signal_hemispheric_asymmetry:
Root mean square difference between left and right hemispheres, expressed as a fraction of the grand mean signal across time. Reflects gross inhomogeneity. Lower is better.
 snr_rms_asymmetry:
Voxelwise left/right root mean square asymmetry in SNR, expressed as a fraction of the mean SNR. Reflects both gross inhomogeneity and noise. Lower is better.
 snr_hemispheric_asymmetry:
Root mean square difference between left and right hemispheres, expressed as a fraction of the mean SNR. Reflects gross inhomogeneity. Lower is better.
Examples: %SETUP mydir{1} = '/Users/tor/Documents/Tor_Documents/Coursework_and_Teaching/psyc7215/Data/UM_Face_House/060518mw/Functional/Preprocessed/run_01'; wcard = 'rarun*img'; epi_names = filenames(fullfile(mydir{1}, wcard), 'absolute'); maskdir = '/Users/tor/Documents/Tor_Documents/Coursework_and_Teaching/psyc7215/Data/UM_Face_House/060518mw'; mask = 'implicit_mask.img'; mask_name = fullfile(maskdir, maskname); %RUN QC = canlab_qc_metrics1(epi_names, mask_name); QC = canlab_qc_metrics1(epi_names, mask_name, 'noplot', 'printfile', 'test_qc.txt'); QC = canlab_qc_metrics1(epi_names, mask_name, 'noplot', 'printfile', 'test_qc.txt', 'noheader');

diagnostics.
check_cluster_data
(cl)¶ loads the first 5 images from the first voxel
Usage: check_cluster_data(cl)
cl(1).imnames(1:5,:)

diagnostics.
compare_subjects
(varargin)¶ This function compares a set of images to one another and does some diagnostics on the similarity among images.  It returns multivariate distances and dissimilarities among images  It works on the GLOBAL signal after standardizing each image (case 1) or the REGIONAL values in each cluster (case 2)  You can also enter a reference image, in which case each image will be correlated with the ref.
Usage: function [ds, g, mystd, d, d2, c, c2, mi, b, eigv, eigval] = compare_subjects([img files or clusters], [mask], ... [plot flag], [title on figure], [standardize flag], [text labels], [ref image])
Inputs: a list of image names to compare
OR
a clusters structure, with data to compare in timeseries field
If a mask is entered, only voxels in the mask (e.g., with value of 1) will be used. You can use this option to specify brainonly or graymatter only voxels
textlab: optional text labels for each image, can be empty []
If a ref image is entered, each image will be correlated with the ref, and values will be saved for the correlation (plot 2 will show these values) Useful for comparing anatomical imgs with template, etc.
Outputs: from correls with ref image are in variable “c”
 ds:
multivariate distance (sim. to Mahalanobis) for each image ds is a matrix of squared distances, case numbers, and expected chi2 values (in columns in this order) rows are cases
 g:
global value for each image
 d:
global distance from mean image distance, or dissimilarity, is the average absolute deviation between images
 d2:
matrix of distances among all images
 c:
correlation between real valued voxels and mean image
 c2:
correlations among all images (treating voxels as cases)
 mi:
mutual information between images, with hist2.m
 b:
principal component scores on correlation matrix for eigenvalues > 1
 eigv:
eigenvectors
 eigval:
eigenvalues
Examples: % Compare normalized anatomcals with standard brain P = get_filename2(['sub*\Anatomy\nscalped_ft1.img']); [ds, g, mystd, d, d2, c, c2, mi] = compare_subjects(P, which('brain_avg152T1.img'), 1, 'intext_countloc', 1, [], which('avg152T1.img'));

diagnostics.
compare_subjects256
(varargin)¶ This function compares a set of images to one another and does some diagnostics on the similarity among images.  It returns multivariate distances and dissimilarities among images  It works on the GLOBAL signal after standardizing each image (case 1) or the REGIONAL values in each cluster (case 2)  You can also enter a reference image, in which case each image will be correlated with the ref.
Usage: function [ds,g,mystd,d,d2,c,c2,mi,b,eigv,eigval] = compare_subjects256([img files or clusters],[mask], ... [plot flag],[title on figure],[standardize flag],[text labels],[ref image])
Inputs: a list of image names to compare
OR
a clusters structure, with data to compare in timeseries field
If a mask is entered, only voxels in the mask (e.g., with value of 1) will be used. You can use this option to specify brainonly or graymatter only voxels
textlab: optional text labels for each image, can be empty []
If a ref image is entered, each image will be correlated with the ref, and values will be saved for the correlation (plot 2 will show these values) Useful for comparing anatomical imgs with template, etc.
Outputs: from correls with ref image are in variable “c”
 ds:
multivariate distance (sim. to Mahalanobis) for each image ds is a matrix of squared distances, case numbers, and expected chi2 values (in columns in this order) rows are cases
 g:
global value for each image
 d:
global distance from mean image distance, or dissimilarity, is the average absolute deviation between images
 d2:
matrix of distances among all images
 c:
correlation between real valued voxels and mean image
 c2:
correlations among all images (treating voxels as cases)
 mi:
mutual information between images, with hist2.m
 b:
principal component scores on correlation matrix for eigenvalues > 1
 eigv:
eigenvectors
 eigval:
eigenvalues
Examples: % Compare normalized anatomcals with standard brain P = get_filename2(['sub*\Anatomy\nscalped_ft1.img']); [ds,g,mystd,d,d2,c,c2,mi] = compare_subjects256(P,which('brain_avg152T1.img'),1,'intext_countloc',1,[],which('avg152T1.img'));

diagnostics.
displayme
(mm, txtlab, tlab2)¶ Used in img_hist2  included as internal function there. this function is for indepenent redisplay after img_hist2 is finished.
Usage: function [subjM,Mtotalv] = displayme(mm,txtlab,tlab2)
Example: % TO run: [O.subjM,O.Mtotalv] = displayme(O.m,txtlab,'MEANS'); [O.subjS,O.Stotalv] = displayme(O.s,txtlab,'STD'); [O.subjW,O.Wtotalv] = displayme(O.w,txtlab,'SKEWNESS'); [O.subjK,O.Ktotalv] = displayme(O.k,txtlab,'KURTOSIS');

diagnostics.
ellipse
(x, v1, v2, c, varargin)¶ Gives x and y coordinates for an ellipse, given x coordinates, at a distance of c
Usage: [x,y] = ellipse(x,v1,v2,c,[sorting method])
Inputs: Based on the formula for an ellipse, x^2/v1^2 + y^2/v2^2 = c
 c:
is the distance from the origin
 v1:
is the x halflength
 v2:
is the y halflength
 x:
is a vector of points covering the x coordinates in the ellipse
Sorting methods:  sort by x, produces elliptical line in plot
 sort by y, produces horizontal lines in plot
Examples: [x,y]=ellipse((randn(1000,1)),1.5,2.5,1); figure; hh = plot(x(2:end1),y(2:end1),'r') rotate(hh,[0 90],45) % rotate around zaxis by 45 degrees x2 = get(hh,'XData'); y2 = get(hh,'YData'); hold on; plot(x2,y2,'bx'); rotate(hh,[0 90],45) % rotate original ellipse back % fill fill(x,y,'r','FaceAlpha',.2)

diagnostics.
fft_calc
(dat, TR)¶ Simple function to calculate the FFT power of a data vector (dat) as a function of frequency, given a sampletosample repetition time (TR)
Usage: [myfft, freq] = fft_calc(dat, TR)

diagnostics.
fmri_mask_thresh_canlab
(fmri_file, outputname, implicit_masking_method, plotfigs)¶ Implicit determination of which voxels are inbrain, based on the intensities of functional images. Assumes much (most) of the image has nearzero background noise values, and the inbrain values are substantially higher.
Usage: [mask_thresh, cl, inmaskvox, in_mask_logical_vector, maskfilename] = fmri_mask_thresh_canlab(fmri_file, outputname)
Inputs:  fmri_file:
is either a list of file names or an fmri_data object
 File names:
a (preferably) 4D file of imaging data, Analyze .img or .nii
 fmri_data object:
With multiple images loaded with no mask
 outputname:
is a mask file output name, e.g., ‘mask.img’, with .img extension. Empty [] means do not write output image.
Implicit_masking_method:  mean:
take the top 95% of voxels above the mean value. used by
default if no value is entered
 dip:
smooth the histogram and take the top 95% of values above the
first positive gradient
 **plotfigs
[1/0]: enable or suppress mask display and orthviews
Outputs:  mask_thresh:
signalvalue above which voxels are considered in brain
 c1:
clusters, from iimg_indx2clusters
 inmaskvox:
number of inmask voxels
 dat:
binary matrix of voxels that are in (1) or out (0) of mask
Note: we want to be more inclusive than not at this stage.
last edited Oct 2011  add support for fmri_data/image_vector objects added figure suppression, SG 12/14/15 defaults

diagnostics.
get_filename
(dwcard, wcard, varargin)¶ Usage: function P = get_filename(dir_wcard,file_wcard,[verbose])
Start in directory above individual subject directories
Inputs:  dwcard:
Enter dwcard for wildcard of directories to look in; e.g. ‘02*’
 wcard:
Enter wcard for image or file to get  e.g., ‘beta_0001.img’ This can also include subdirectories (no *‘s) ‘anatomy/beta*img’
Output: Returns list of all files in individual directories in string matrix
Missing files, or entries in directory that do not contain files, are removed from the list.
NOT entering a * in dwcard seems to produce an error.
Examples: P = get_filename('02*','beta_0001*') P = get_filename('02*','beta_0001.img') P = get_filename('02*','anatomy/nnhe*_seg1.img') P = get_filename('020515sp*','anatomy/nnhe*_seg1.img')
one * is allowed in first string, multiple *‘s in second, as long as they are in the filename, not directory names!

diagnostics.
get_filename2
(dwcard, varargin)¶ Usage: function [P,P2,d] = get_filename2(search string (as with ls command),[verbose])
Start in directory above individual subject directories
Inputs:  dwcard:
Enter dwcard for wildcard of directories to look in; e.g. ‘02*’
 wcard:
Enter wcard for image or file to get  e.g., ‘beta_0001.img’ This can also include subdirectories (no *‘s) ‘anatomy/beta*img’
Outputs: Returns list of all files in individual directories in string matrix
 P:
file names with full paths
 P2:
file names only
 d:
list of directories searched for files
Missing files, or entries in directory that do not contain files, are removed from the list. NOT entering a * in dwcard seems to produce an error.
Examples: P = get_filename2('02*/beta_0001*')
one * is allowed in the directory structure right now, multiple *‘s in the filename.

diagnostics.
hist2
(A, B, res, varargin)¶ 2D histogram with res bins
Usage: [H,mi,H2] = hist2(A,B,res,[plot])
A and B can be 3D, as in image volumes mi is mutual information, a la spm_mireg.m

diagnostics.
image_intensity_histograms
(fout, imgs, varargin)¶  Makes a sheet (fout.png) of intensity distribution histograms of imgs.
 Will put an even number of rows of subplots on each page saved. If more than one page is needed, will title outputs fout_1.png, etc.
Usage: image_intensity_histograms(fout, imgs, [options])
Inputs:  fout:
imfilename to be saved (‘.png’ will be appended)
 imgs:
ima cell array of filenames of images to make histograms of
Optional Inputs:  obj:
im
 ‘titles’, cellarray:
use strings in cellarray as plot titles (DEFAULT: use file names from imgs)
 ‘bins’, n:
use n bins in histograms (DEFAULT: 100)
 ‘ymax’, y:
use yaxis from 0 to y (DEFAULT: 10,000)
 ‘xmax’, x:
use xaxis from x to x (DEFAULT: 10)
 ‘cols’, c:
use c columns of subplots (DEFAULT: 5)
 ‘maxrows’, r:
use no more than r columns of subplots per page (DEFAULT: 7)
 ‘includezeros’:
include zero intensities in histograms (DEFAULT: exclude zeros)
Tor Wager .. add path if necessary

diagnostics.
img_hist
(imgname, subdir)¶ A general function for plotting histograms of any image For each subject, comparing across subjects
Inputs:  imgname:
name of image file to make intensity histograms from
 subdir:
cell array of text strings containing names of individual subject directories (wherein are contained the file specified in imgname or each subject)
Performs the histogram plot twice, once for CSF space and once for gray matter
Locations of gray and CSF masks for each subject must be defined in the defaults section of the script. (hardcoded)
Start in directory above individual subject results
Examples: img_hist('beta_0010.img',subdir) img_hist('con_0002.img',{'020827mk' '020829jh' '020903lb'} % for batch d = dir('020726ag/beta*img'); d = str2mat(d.name); for i = 1:10:size(d,1) img_hist(deblank(d(i,:)),EXPT.subjects) end for i = 2:19, if i < 10, myz = '000';, else, myz = '00';, end, img_hist(['con_' myz num2str(i) '.img'],EXPT.subjects);, end
Tor Wager .. ..
defaults

diagnostics.
img_hist2
(subdir)¶ A general function for plotting histograms of any image For each subject, comparing across subjects
Inputs:  imgname:
name of image file to make intensity histograms from
 subdir:
cell array of text strings containing names of individual subject directories (wherein are contained the file specified in imgname or each subject)
Performs the histogram plot a number of times, without plotting and reports the variance in pdf moments as a function of subject, run, and condition (beta img within run).
Start in directory above individual subject results
Examples: img_hist2(EXPT.subjects) img_hist2({'020827mk' '020829jh' '020903lb'})
Tor Wager .. ..
defaults

diagnostics.
joint_hist
(x, y, varargin)¶ Create 2D joint histogram from vectors x and y
Usage: [z, xbins, ybins] = joint_hist(x,y,[nbins],[noplot])
Inputs:  x and y:**
are vectors of paired observations on two variables
Outputs:  z:
is the matrix representing the joint histogram cols of z are bins of x, rows are bins of y in plot, X axis is y, Y axis is x
Optional: number of bins, suppress plotting
Examples: z = joint_hist(nnmfscores{i}{j}(:, 1),nnmfscores{i}{j}(:, 2), 50, 'noplot'); h = plot_joint_hist_contour(z, [0 0 1]);

diagnostics.
make_conv_mtx
(sz, sampres)¶ Constructs the matrix (H) for a linear convolution With the canonical SPM hrf such that Hx = conv(x,hrf)
Usage: function H = make_conv_mtx(sz,sampres)
Inputs:  sz:
size of output matrix (elements)
 sampres:
spm_hrf sampling resolution (~ TR), OR
if a vector, a custom HRF sampled at the appropriate frequency.
Tor Wager ..

diagnostics.
multivar_dist
(X)¶ multivariate normality checking and diagnostic plots
Usage: [ds, S, p] = multivar_dist(X)
Input: given matrix X with cases = rows, cols = variables
Outputs:  ds:
is matrix of squared distances, case numbers, and expected chi2 values (in columns in this order) rows are cases
NOTE: Sorted in order of ascending distance!
 S:
estimated covariance matrix
 mv_distance:
squared distances in original order of rows
 p:
pvalues in original order of rows
center

diagnostics.
orthogonalize
(mX, X, varargin)¶ orthogonalizes X with respect to mX, optionally scaling predictors of X For each nuisance covariate (column of X)
Usage: function X = orthogonalize(mX,X,[scale])
Regresses out model fits and saves residuals in X

diagnostics.
power_from_variance
(con, N, sig2b, sig2wi, pthresh)¶ Power and effect size measures, given contrast, N, and variance component estimates
Inputs:  con:
contrast/effect magnitude estimate; “mean difference”
 N:
sample size
 sig2b:
betweensubjects variance estimate
 sig2wi:
 withinsubjects variance estimate
note this is not the “raw” withinsubjects variance; it is the contribution to the group (2ndlevel) variance, which is sig2within / number of images withinsubjects
 pthresh:
 alpha (Type I error) rate; pvalue threshold for power
calculation
con, sig2b, and sig2wi can all be vectors, so you can run this function voxelwise for a whole map at once
Outputs:  power:
Power from 0 to 1
 t:
effect size : expected tvalue
 d:
effect size : Cohen’s d
see effect_size_map.m for a wholebrain, imagebased power mapping function
tvalue threshold for significance at alpha level pthresh

diagnostics.
power_loss
(y, ons, X)¶ ‘true’ model fit assume ‘true’ is FIR estimate

diagnostics.
publish_scn_session_spike_id
(inputimgs, SUBJDATA)¶ This function is a wrapper function to call scn_session_spike_id in ‘multisession’ mode, using input data across the runs for a single subject. It runs the program, and generates both a yamlformat text file for uploading into the CANlab database, and an html file with all the results and images for that subject embedded.
Inputs:  inputimgs:
is a cell array of images (4D) for each run in a separate cell.
 SUBJDATA:
Input fields of SUBJDATA define the experiment name, subject name, and directories for saving both QC images + yaml and HTML
Examples: SUBJDATA.study = 'NSF'; SUBJDATA.subject = subjects{i}; SUBJDATA.html_save_dir = fullfile(output_basedir, 'html_output'); SUBJDATA.subject_dir = fullfile(output_basedir, 'SubjectData', 'denoised_canlab', SUBJDATA.subject);
Initialize yaml file for database integration

diagnostics.
qchist
(images, Nbins, sparse, XLim, titles)¶ This function generates a histogram of activations from a set of statistic images. Generally, you want the images to have a normal distribution. Highly skewed distributions may be indicative of bad data.
Usage: function: h = qchist(dat,Nbins,sparse,XLim) This function may generate multiple figuresa with 30 histograms each
Inputs:  images:
List of image file names OR fmri_data object.
Optional Inputs:  Nbins:
Number of bins in each histogram (default = 100)
 sparse:
flag for generating ONLY histograms (default = 0)
 XLim:
Xlim (default = [1 1])
 titles:
a cell array of subplot titles. If omitted, titles are inferred from assuming images come from a directory structure that looks like the following: /.../subjname/contrastimage.nii

diagnostics.
reset_SPMcfg
()¶ resets columns in SPMcfg by removing all nonintercept nuisance covariates. runs on the SPMcfg.mat file in the current directory

diagnostics.
scale_imgs_by_csf
(hP)¶ Takes a string matrix of image file names finds the mean and std of the CSF space specified in a mask (hardcoded) and standardizes images by these values
Usage: Pout = scale_imgs_by_csf(hP)
Writes SC* images (SCaled)
assumes images are spatially normalized. uses a canonical CSF mask!

diagnostics.
scn_component_rsquare
(V, nuisanceX, designX)¶ Print a table of rsquare values (variance explained) for each of V data vectors by nuisance (mvmt, physio) and taskrelated predictors
Designed to work with components
Examples: % Typical operation scn_component_rsquare(compscore, movement_params(1:157, :), X(1:157, :)); % No design scn_component_rsquare(compscore, movement_params(1:157, :)); % Neither design nor nuisance, uses linear drift scn_component_rsquare(compscore, []);

diagnostics.
scn_session_spike_id
(imgs, varargin)¶ Gets global image values for a session, and uses trimts.m to find outliers. The optional input MADs allows one to lower or raise the threshold for identifying scans as spikes (default = 10).
Usage: [g, spikes, gtrim, nuisance_covs, spikesperimg, snr] = scn_session_spike_id(imgs,'mask',[mask name],'MADs',[MADs],'doplot',[0/1])
Multisession mode returns much more output and more images, and takes in a cell array with images (preferably 4D) for each session (run).
Inputs:  ‘mask’,[pathtomaskfile]:
mask images using the mask in pathtomaskfile, default: implicit mask
 ‘MADs’,[scalar]:
change Mahalanobis distance, default: 10
 ‘doplot’,[0 / 1]:
plot result figures, default: true
Returns:
 g:
 global values
 spikes:
 identified spikes
 gtrim:
 trimmed/adjusted global values, can be used as covariate in GLM
 nuisance_covs:
 a matrix of 1)gtrim and 2) dummy regressors that can be used to minimize spike influence in GLM
We may want to save norms on the number of outliers found.
Examples: % Get image names for i = 1:6, sess_images{i} = filenames(sprintf('run%02d/vol0*img', i), 'char', 'absolute'); end % Run [g, spikes, gtrim, nuisance_covs, snr] = scn_session_spike_id(sess_images);

diagnostics.
scn_spm_choose_hpfilter
(spm_results_dir, varargin)¶ Plots and choice of optimal highpass filter from an SPM firstlevel model directory (with statistics and contrasts estimated.)
Usage: scn_spm_choose_hpfilter(spm_results_dir, ['events_only'])
SPM5 compatible and SPM8.
Called by: scn_spm_design_check.m For all regressors or events only: see scn_spm_choose_hpfilter.m

diagnostics.
scn_spm_design_check
(spm_results_dir, varargin)¶ Run in a singlesubject (firstlevel) SPM directory to check design matrix variance inflation factors and highpass filtering. Prints out table of regressors and their abovethreshold VIFs (see options). Saves .png images of the key figures.
Usage: scn_spm_design_check(spm_results_dir, varargin)
Optional Inputs:  ‘events_only’:
Show plots and diagnostics for ONLY events, not nuisance covariates or other userspecified regressors. Useful when you have many nuisance covs.
 ‘vif_thresh’, t’:
Only regressors with a VIF > t will be printed in VIF table.
 ‘sort_by_vif’‘:
Sort regressors in VIF table by VIF (DEFAULT: order regressors as in model).
Calls: scn_spm_choose_hpfilter.m, scn_spm_get_events_of_interest.m
Examples: scn_spm_design_check(pwd, 'events_only');

diagnostics.
scn_spm_get_events_of_interest
(SPM, varargin)¶ Gets events of interest.
Usage: wh_cols = scn_spm_get_events_of_interest(SPM, varargin)
All regressors, or events only if ‘events_only’ is input as keyword ‘from_multireg’: followed by an integer, to include first n columns from the multireg R matrix as “of interest”. only works with ‘events_only’ flag, of course.

diagnostics.
scnlab_norm_check
(template, wanat_files, mean_func_files, subjects)¶ Compares the similarity of one or two sets of images (wanat_files, mean_func_files) to a template image and to one another (via Malanobis distance) to determine whether some images are potential outliers. This is used to check the quality of spatial warping/normalization for a group of subjects, though it could be used for other purposes as well.
Usage: NORM_CHECK = scnlab_norm_check(template, wanat_files, mean_func_files, subjs)
Inputs:  template:
Char array with name of image of normalization template
 wanat_files:
Warped (to template) anatomical file names
 mean_func_files:
Names of mean functional images These images should all be in the same space/in register.
 Subjs:
Optional cell array of names for each subject, for display purposes
Outputs: A structure with metrics (NORM_CHECK)
 NORM_CHECK.global_t1:
global values of first image series (wanat_files)
 NORM_CHECK.std_t1:
spatial standard deviation of first image series (wanat_files)
 NORM_CHECK.names_t1:
Names for columns of NORM_CHECK.norm_vs_template
 NORM_CHECK.subjects:
Cell array of names for each subject
 NORM_CHECK.norm_vs_template:
 Similarity data for subjects (rows) x metrics (cols)
{‘Dist. from group, actual chi2’, ‘Mutual info with template’, ‘Correlation with template’};
NB: Leave mean_func_files empty (e.g., []) to only check structural images
Computes metrics on the goodness of normalization based on multivariate distance, mutual information, and correlation with template. Automatically saves a .mat file of the results into the current directory.
the template file (i.e., avg152T1.nii) must be in the CURRENT working directory and have read/write permissions
USES the subfunction compare_subjects, which may be useful as a standalone function.
USED in canlab_preproc_norm_check.m

diagnostics.
scnlab_norm_check3
(wt1, subjlabels, template, mask, varargin)¶ WARNING: scnlab_norm_check3 is deprecated! All improvements are being placed in scnlab_norm_check.
Usage: EXPT = scnlab_norm_check3(wt1,subjlabels,template,mask,[print out MI])
Inputs:  wt1:
char array of wT1.img files, one per line
 subjlabels:
cell array of subject labels
 template:
template img that everything has been normalized to (usually the avg152T1.img file)
 mask:
image to mask with
Optional Input: print out mutual information table  flag for whether or not to print out the MI table; defaults to 0
Examples: cd(studyroot); % wherever your study root is wt1s = filenames('hr*/structural/wT1.img', 'char', 'absolute'); % assuming that hr is your study code subjlabels = filenames('hr*'); template = which('avg152T1.nii'); mask = filenames('scalped_avg152T1_graymatter.img', 'char', 'absolute'); % set to wherever your mask is... EXPT = scnlab_norm_check3(wt1, subjlabels, template, mask);
THIS FUNCTION IS DEPRECATED; SCNLAB_NORM_CHECK IS PREFERRED

diagnostics.
scnlab_pca_check1
(imgs, realign_files, X, spersess)¶ Usage: function scnlab_pca_check1(imgs, realign_files or params (t x 6) across all runs, X, spersess)
Inputs:  imgs:
list of all image names in order
 realign_files:
movement param file for each session, names in a cell array, OR
a t x 6 matrix of realignment parameters across all sessions
 X:
design matrix; no intercept is needed
Examples: % setup code for auditory oddball data cd('/Users/tor/Documents/Tor_Documents/Coursework_and_Teaching/Mind_Res_Net_fMRI_Course_2008/data/auditory_oddball/2subjectsprocessed/s01/') imgs = filenames('*/sw*img','absolute','char') realign_files = filenames('*/rp*txt') % LOAD TASK ONSETS and CREATE DESIGN MATRIX onsets{1} = load('novel_stimuli_run1.asc'); onsets{2} = load('target_stimuli_run1.asc'); onsets{3} = load('standard_stimuli_run1.asc'); onsets{4} = load('novel_stimuli_run2.asc'); onsets{5} = load('target_stimuli_run2.asc'); onsets{6} = load('standard_stimuli_run2.asc'); regs_per_sess = 3; nsess = 2; for i = 1:length(onsets), onsets{i} = onsets{i}'; end X = cell(1, nsess); X{1} = onsets2delta(onsets(1:3), 1, 249); X{1} = X{1}(:, 1:end1); X{2} = onsets2delta(onsets(4:6), 1, 249); X{2} = X{2}(:, 1:end1); X = blkdiag(X{:});

diagnostics.
spm_general_hist
(hP, mP, textlab, varargin)¶ Usage: function M = spm_general_hist(hP,mP,textlab,[suppress plot  enter anything])
Inputs:  hP:
list of file names to compute histograms from
 mP:
list of file names to compute masks from
 textlab:
text string, e.g. ‘ventricles’ to label output tiffs
Output: histograms for all input images (usually contrast images from individual subjects) plotted against a normal curve.
The expected output is that each image will have roughly mean 0, with bumps or tails in the distribution of there are real activations in some parts of the brain.
Looking at these histograms may be helpful for detecting outliers or subjects with strange contrast values. These may be caused by bad scaling, multicolinearity in the design matrix, acquisition artifacts, taskcorrelated head movement, or ???
Histograms (blue) are overlaid on a Gaussian distribution (red) with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation equal to that of the observed data.

diagnostics.
spm_rfx_hist
(cwd)¶ Usage: function spm_rfx_hist(cwd)
Input: a directory name where an spm or SnPM random effects analysis lives Outputs: histograms for all input images (usually contrast images from individual subjects) plotted against a normal curve. The expected output is that each image will have roughly mean 0, with bumps or tails in the distribution of there are real activations in some parts of the brain.
Looking at these histograms may be helpful for detecting outliers or subjects with strange contrast values. These may be caused by bad scaling, multicolinearity in the design matrix, acquisition artifacts, taskcorrelated head movement, or ???
Histograms (blue) are overlaid on a Gaussian distribution (red) with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation equal to that of the observed data.

diagnostics.
struct2yaml
(yamlfilename, DB, yamlfilemethod, dbmethod)¶ Usage: struct2yaml(yamlfilename, DB, yamlfilemethod, dbmethod)
Inputs:  yamlfilemethod:
‘new’ or ‘add’ (append)
 dbmethod:
how the canlab database will handle the record. ‘add’, ‘replace’, or ‘keep_existing’
translate structure into YAML format text file this will be interpretable by the canlab database
Examples: yamlfilename = 'YAML_tmp.yaml'; DB.study = 'NSF'; % string; study code letters DB.subject = '001'; % string; subject ID number DB.occasion = '21'; % string; occasion ID; unique to subj*session DB.unique_id = [DB.study '_' DB.subject '_' DB.occasion]; DB.mean_spikes_per_image = mean(cat(2, spikesperimg{:})); struct2yaml(yamlfilename, DB, 'add', 'replace');

diagnostics.
tor_get_physio
(varargin)¶ Usage: [X,mP,spmP] = tor_get_physio([mP],[spmP],[nvoxels],[doortho])
arguments are optional, but you must enter them in this order.
Tor Wager 10/21/02
Get nuisance covariates likely to be related to physiological noise and head motion The algorithm:
The program extracts raw/preprocessed image data from the ventricles (CSF space), as defined by a mask denoting which voxels are CSF for that subject. Either all voxels or a randomly selected subset [nvoxels] is subjected to principal components analysis, to determine regular patters of drift over time and across voxels. Those patterns are expected to be related to global signal drift, head movement, and physiological noise, and are assumed to be UNrelated to the task of interest, by virtue of the fact that they occur in the ventricles.
PCA is done twice on the timeseries’ of CSF voxels. The first time, PCA is done on the sums of squared values (not the correlations) of voxel timeserieses across the entire experiment, meancentered based on the whole experiment. Most of the coherent variation in this case is expected to be due to head movement and changes in shims/gradients/etc. from run to run. The SS values are used because we want to weight the voxels with the highest variation most heavily, as they are presumably picking up most of this signal. The first 3 eigenvariates (canonical timeseries) are saved.
Following, a separate, second PCA is done on the correlation matrix of data within each session. Session data for each voxel are meancentered and scaled relative to the session (variance of each voxel = 1). We do this because physiological noiserelated signals may produce periodic signals of different magnitudes in different voxels, and we want to extract the most coherent signals we can within each session. So these eigenvariates are expected to reflect primarily noise related to physiology (heart rate, respiration). Up to 5 eigenvariates for each session are saved (nothing with eigenvalue < 1 is saved).
Next, the CSFrelated nuisance covariates (eigenvariates from PCA) are combined with existing nuisance covariates and intercept columns from the existing design matrix (SPMcfg xX). The proportion of variance in each predictor of interest explained by this nuisance basis set is calculated using regression, and the nuisance covariates are orthogonalized with respect to each predictor of interest. There are good and bad results of this step. The bad is that any signal that tracks the predictors is attributed to the task, not to noise, even if it’s actually caused by physiological artifact. So the orthogonalized basis set does not protect you from physiology or movementrelated false positives. However, the nuisance covariates are also unlikely to reduce power in estimating you effects of interest. More importantly, it avoids false positives created when one predictor (A) is more highly correlated with the nuisance covariates than another (B). In practice, betas for A will tend to be smaller than B, given the same actual response to both, and a random effects analysis on AB will produce false positive activations. Orthogonalization of the nuisance set precludes this.
Inputs:  mP:
CSF mask image file. *_seg3.img output from SPM is appropriate should be in same space and have same dims as functionals but automatic reslicing is done if necessary.
 spmP:
name (full path name preferred) of SPMcfg.mat file to use This contains the design matrix and raw/preproc image file names to use.
 nvoxels:
Number of CSF voxels to use in PCA analysis More than 100 can be very slow and memory intensive. Fewer than 100 voxels loads a different way, and may be slower. Best is probably between 100  1000. 800 runs pretty fast.
 doortho:
Orthogonalize nuisance covariates with respect to regs of interest This assumes that any signal that covaries with the task is, in fact, due to the task, so it gives you some bias towards finding positive results. However, the alternative is that nuisance covariates may soak up variance related to the task, and you’ll miss activations. In addition, if some regressors are more colinear with the nuisance set, you can create false “activations” when comparing these regressors to other ones. This problem exists whether or not we choose to model nuisance covariates. One solution is to use the ortho when doing random effects analyses, as the sign and magnitude of nuisancerelated activations would not be expected to be the same across subjects unless the variance was really taskrelated. Default is 1, or “yes, do orthogonalization.”
for functions called, see this .m file.
Examples: % get filenames for SPMcfg files and CSF mask for each subject cd C:\Tor_Documents\CurrentExperiments\intext2\RESULTS\model1 spmP = get_filename('sub*','SPMcfg.mat'); cd C:\Tor_Documents\CurrentExperiments\intext2\ mP = get_filename('sub*','anatomy/nscalped_f*seg3.img'); % Now run: for i = 1:size(mP,1) tor_get_physio(mP(i,:),spmP(i,:),300); % 300 voxels pause(10); close all end
Functions called:  spm functions: spm_get, etc.
 timeseries2.m (for < 100 voxels)
 read_hdr.m (biglittle endian dependent; validate for your data)
 timeseries3.m (for > 100 voxels; uses SPM’s image reading)
 reslice_imgs.m
 mask2voxel.m (only if ind2sub.m from Matlab is not found)
GLM_Batch_tools¶

GLM_Batch_tools.
canlab_glm_getinfo
(modeldir, varargin)¶ SUBJECT LEVEL input: INFO = canlab_glm_getinfo(spm_subject_level_directory, option, [n])
Get information out of an spm subject level analysis.
Options: (each option can be called by the listed letter or word + a number, when noted)
 i’ ‘input’:
number of volumes and (first) volume name for each run
 ‘b’ ‘betas’ [n]:
beta names (for nth session)
 ‘B’ ‘taskbetas’ [n]:
beta names (that didn’t come from multiple regressors) (for nth session)
 ‘c’ ‘cons’ [n]:
contrast names (for nth contrast)
 ‘C’ ‘conw’ [n]:
beta names and weights for contrasts (for nth con)
 ‘v’ ‘image’ [n]:
 create figure of design matrix (for nth session)
(design matrix is multiplied by 100 for visibility) (works well for multiple runs)
 ‘V’ ‘taskimage’ [n]:
same as ‘image’, but only for task betas
 ‘imagesc’:
 same as ‘image’, but uses imagesc
(works well for single runs)
GROUP LEVEL input: INFO = canlab_glm_getinfo(robfit_group_level_directory, option, [n])
Get information out of a robfit group level analysis.
Options: (each option can be called by the listed word or letter + a number, when noted)
Any of the subject level options can be used on a group level robfit analysis by prefixing ‘1i’ (output is generated based on the first input to the first robust analysis).
Ex:
canlab_glm_getinfo('second_level/model3','1iconw')
 ‘i’ ‘input’ [n]:
input contrasts by number and name (for nth analysis)
 ‘I’ ‘allinput’ [n]:
input images (for nth analysis)
 ‘m’ ‘model’:
weights by subject (i.e., directory containing input contrast images)
 ‘M’ ‘allmodels’ [n]:
weights and input images (for nth analysis)
Assumptions: In some options, the first contrasts and group level analysis directories are assumed to represent the rest, which may not be the case.
Note: group level options do not yet return a usable INFO struct.

GLM_Batch_tools.
canlab_glm_group_levels
(varargin)¶  Performs group level robust GLM analysis with robfit
 sets up analysis
 runs robfit
 (optionally) make inverse p maps (for FSL viewing)
 (optionally) estimate significant cluster sizes
 publishes analysis with robfit_results_batch
Usage: canlab_glm_group_levels([options])
Optional Inputs:  ‘s’, subjects:
cell array of filenames of subjectlevel analysis directories IN modeldir (note: modeldir won’t be prepended to absolute paths)
 ‘m’, modeldir:
filename of directory containing subject level analyses
 ‘o’, grpmodeldir:
output directory name
 ‘c’, cov:
a matrix describing group level model (do not include intercept, it is automatically included as first regressor)
see help robfit
note: requires specifying an output directory name
note: ordering of inputs (rows) must match subjects ordering
 ‘n’, covname:
a cell array of names for the covariates in cov
 ‘f’, covfile:
a csv file will specify the group level model: first column, header ‘subject’, contains names of subject directories (to be found in modeldir) subsequent columns have covariates, headers are names of covariates name of covfile will be name of group analysis directory (placed in grpmodeldir)
 ‘mask’, maskimage:
filename of mask image
 DSGN:
will use the following fields of the DSGN structure: modeldir = DSGN.modeldir
subjects = DSGN.subjects
maskimage = DSGN.mask
Note: A covfile will cause other specifications of subject, cov, and covnames to be ignored.
If parameters are defined more than once (e.g., modeldir or subjects), only the last entered option will count.
Defaults:  subjects:
all SPM.matcontaining directories in modeldir
 modeldir:
pwd
 grpmodeldir:
modeldir/one_sample_t_test
 cov:
{} (run 1 sample ttest, see help robfit)
 covname:
‘groupmean’
 mask:
‘brainmask.nii’
Options:  ‘README’:
prints canlab_glm_README, an overview of canlab_glm_{subject,group}_levels
 ‘overwrite’:
overwrite existing output directories
 ‘noresults’:
don’t run/publish robfit_results_batch
 ‘onlyresults’:
just run/publish robfit_results_batch, don’t run robfit (assumes existing analyses)
 **‘whichcons’, [which cons]
vector of contrasts to analyze (DEFAULT: aall subject level contrasts) see [which cons] in help robfit
 ‘invp’ [, target_space_image]:
generate inverse p maps and resample to the voxel and image dimensions of target_space_image (viewable on dream with ~ruzicl/scripts/invpview)
 ‘nolinks’:
do not make directory of named links to robust directories (using contrast names)
 ‘dream’:
if you’re running on the dream cluster, this option will cause
all analyses (e.g., lower level contrasts) to be run in parallel (submitted with matlab DCS and the Sun Grid Engine) Note: currently only works with MATLAB R2009a
 ‘email’, address:
send notification email to address when done running

GLM_Batch_tools.
canlab_glm_group_levels_run1input
(wd, c)¶ child process of canlab_glm_group_levels (see canlab_glm_README.txt for an overview)

GLM_Batch_tools.
canlab_glm_maskstats
(DIRS, MASK, varargin)¶  Returns a MASKSTATS structure containing data from robfitdir’s input subject level
 SPM analyses.
Usage: MASKSTATS = canlab_glm_maskstats(robfitdir, mask, [options])
output structure: MASKSTATS
 COV:
 subject x covariate matrix (EXPT.cov from robfit design)
 COVNAME:
 names of covariates in COV
 MASK:
 array of structs (1 per mask)
 MASKFILE:
 the filename of the mask used
 SUB:
 struct containing data from subject level images
 CON:
 struct contains data from contrast images
 NAME:
 cell array (1 cell per contrast) of contrast names
 IMGFILES:
 cell array (1 cell per contrast) of character arrays of contrast image filenames
 (MEASURE):
 subject X contrast matrix of measures (see canlab_maskstats)
 COVxCON.(MEASURE):
 arrays of covariate matrix X contrast means correlation results (RHO and P, see help corr())
 GRP:
 struct containing data from group level images
 BETA:
 struct array (1 struct per group level regressor) of data from beta images
 NAME:
 name of group level regressor
 IMGFILES:
 cell array (1 cell per robust directory) of beta image files
 (MEASURE):
 row vector (1 value per robust directory) of measures (see canlab_maskstats)
 The following plots are saved in each mask’s directory in the plots directory:
 contrast means by contrast (means are lines across subjects on x axis)
 contrast means by subject (means are dots, lined up along the x axis by contrast)
 group level betas (bar plot with group level regressors grouped by subject level contrasts)
 If there’s more than one regressor in the group level model, for each regressor:
 scatter plot of subject level contrast means against group level regressor
Arguments:  robfitdir:
a directory in which robfit was run contains robfit directories (e.g., robust0001) preferably contains EXPT.mat or EXPTm.mat
 mask:
a filename or cell array of filenames of masks to apply to data
Options:  MEASURE OPTIONS:
(see canlab_maskstats) (DEFAULT: mean (within mask’s nonzero voxels))
 ‘cons’, connums:
(vector of contrast numbers) only include data from contrasts as specified by numbers
 ‘cons’, conname(s):
(string or cell array of strings) only include data from contrasts as specified by name
 ‘plots’:
make plots
 ‘od’, dir:
will save plots in dir (DEFAULT: robfitdir/stats_scatterplots)

GLM_Batch_tools.
canlab_glm_publish
(varargin)¶ Usage: canlab_glm_publish(directory_specifications [options])
Directory Specification:  ‘s’, dirs:
Generates HTML reports of the output from scn_spm_design_check for directories in cell array dires (string allowable for single dir). If a directory is a subject level analysis, the HTML will be generated for that subject in the analysis directory. Ex:
canlab_glm_publish(‘s’,{‘model1/1011’ ‘model1/1014’})
If a directory contains subject level analyses, an HTML will be generated with output for each subject level analysis. Ex:
canlab_glm_publish(‘s’,’model1’)
ASSUMPTION: lower level analyses contain an SPM.mat file.
 ‘g’, dirs:
For each “robfit directory” in cell array dirs, will run robust_results_batch on all contrast directories (e.g., robust0001/) (string allowable for single dir). (“robfit directories” contain robfit contrast directories (like robust0001)) EITHER directories contain EXPT.mat files (see help robfit) OR an EXPT struct is loaded in the workspace and a single directory is specified OR will do best to figure out info normally contained in EXPT.mat Ex:
canlab_glm_publish(‘g’, {‘group_n35’ ‘group_anxiety_n35’ ‘group_sadness_n35’})
Note: directory paths may be absolute or relative (to working directory)
Options:  ‘t’, {[pthresh clustersize] ...}:
Use the paired voxelwise_pthresh and minimum_cluster_size thresholds with which to produce robfit results maps. This option must follow immediately after a ‘g’ option (see above) and will only apply to the analyses specified in that option. ONLY applies to robfit directories (no bearing on lower level design checks)
DEFAULT: {[.001 5] [.005 1] [.05 1]} Ex:
canlab_glm_publish(‘g’, pwd, ‘t’, {[.001 1] [.005 10] [.05 10] [.01 25]})
 ‘email’, address:
send notification email to address when done running Ex:
canlab_glm_publish(‘g’, pwd, ‘email’, 'ruzic@colorado.edu‘)

GLM_Batch_tools.
canlab_glm_roistats
(DIRS, ROI, varargin)¶ Use canlab_glm_maskstats instead

GLM_Batch_tools.
canlab_glm_subject_levels
(dsgnarg, varargin)¶  Performs lower level GLM analysis with SPM:
 specifies model
 estimates model
 generates contrast images for model
 creates directory with named links to spmT and con maps
 publishes analyses with scn_spm_design_check
Usage: canlab_glm_subject_levels(DSGN [options])
DSGN struct  defines the model and analysis parameters
canlab_glm_subject_levels(‘README’) to see description
Options:  ‘README’:
prints canlab_glm_README, an overview of canlab_glm_{subject,group}_levels
 ‘dsgninfo’:
prints description of DSGN structure
 ‘subjects’, subject_list:
ignore DSGN.subjects, use cell array subject_list
 ‘overwrite’:
turn on overwriting of existing analyses (DEFAULT: skip existing)
 ‘onlycons’:
only run contrast job (no model specification or estimation) note: will overwrite existing contrasts note: to not run contrasts, simply do not include a contrasts field in DSGN
 ‘addcons’:
only run contrasts that aren’t already in SPM.mat option to canlab_spm_contrast_job
 ‘nodelete’:
do not delete existing contrasts (consider using addcons, above) option to canlab_spm_contrast_job
 ‘nolinks’:
will not make directory with named links to contrast images
 ‘noreview’:
will not run scn_spm_design_check
 ‘dream’:
if you’re running on the dream cluster, this option will cause all subjects to be run in parallel (submitted with matlab DCS and the Sun Grid Engine) Note: currently only works with MATLAB R2009a
 ‘email’, address:
send notification email to address when done running
Model specification and estimation done by canlab_spm_fmri_model_job
Contrasts are specified by canlab_spm_contrast_job_luka see that function for more info.

GLM_Batch_tools.
canlab_glm_subject_levels_run1subject
(wd, s)¶ child process of canlab_glm_subject_levels (see canlab_glm_README.txt for an overview)
HRF_Est_Toolbox2¶

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
Anneal_Logit
(theta0, t, tc, Run)¶ Estimate inverse logit (IL) HRF model using Simulated Annealing Creates fitted curve  3 logistic functions to be summed together  from parameter estimates
Usage: [theta,HH,C,P] = Anneal_Logit(theta0,t,tc,Run)
Inputs:  Run:
stick function
 tc:
time course
 t:
vector of time points
 theta0:
initial value for the parameter vector

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
Det_Logit
(V0, t, tc, Run)¶ Estimate inverse logit (IL) HRF model Creates fitted curve  3 logistic functions to be summed together  from parameter estimates
Usage: [VM, h, fit, e, param] = Det_Logit_allstim(V0,t,tc,Run)
Inputs:  Run:
stick function
 tc:
time course
 t:
vector of time points
 V0:
initial value for the parameter vector

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
Fit_Canonical_HRF
(tc, TR, Run, T, p)¶ Fits GLM using canonical hrf (with option of using time and dispersion derivatives)’;
Usage: function [hrf, fit, e, param, info] = Fit_Canonical_HRF(tc,TR,Runs,T,p)
Inputs:  tc:
time course
 TR:
time resolution
 Runs:
expermental design
 T:
length of estimated HRF
 p:
Model type
Options:  p=1  only canonical HRF
 p=2  canonical + temporal derivative
 p=3  canonical + time and dispersion derivative
Outputs:  hrf:
estimated hemodynamic response function
 fit:
estimated time course
 e:
residual time course
 param:
estimated amplitude, height and width
 info:
struct containing design matrices, beta values etc

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
Fit_Logit2
(tc, TR, Run, T, mode)¶ Fits FIR and smooth FIR model
Usage: function [hrf, fit, e, param] = Fit_Logit(tc,Run,t,mode)
Inputs:  tc:
time course
 TR:
time resolution
 Runs:
expermental design
 T:
length of estimated HRF
 mode:
deterministic or stochastic
 Options:
0  deterministic aproach
1  simulated annealing approach
Please note that when using simulated annealing approach you may need to perform some tuning before use.
Outputs:  hrf:
estimated hemodynamic response function
 fit:
estimated time course
 e:
residual time course
 param:
estimated amplitude, height and width

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
Fit_sFIR
(tc, TR, Run, T, mode)¶ Fits FIR and smooth FIR model
Usage: function [hrf, fit, e, param] = Fit_sFIR(tc,TR,Runs,T,mode)
Inputs:  tc:
time course
 TR:
time resolution
 Runs:
expermental design
 T:
length of estimated HRF
 mode:
FIR or smooth FIR
 Options:
0  standard FIR
1  smooth FIR
Outputs:  hrf:
estimated hemodynamic response function
 fit:
estimated time course
 e:
residual time course
 param:
estimated amplitude, height and width

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
Get_Logit
(V, t)¶ Calculate inverse logit (IL) HRF model Creates fitted curve  3 logistic functions to be summed together  from parameter estimates
Usage: [h] = get_logit(V,t)
Inputs:  t:
vector of time points
 V:
parameters

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
HMHRFest
(y, Runs, TR, nbasis, norder)¶ HRF estimation algorithm
Inputs:  y:
Data matrix (#time points) by (#subjects) by (#voxels)
 Runs:
Stick functions for each subject (#time points) by (#conditions) by (#subjects)
 TR:
Time resolution
 nbasis:
Number of bspline basis
 norder:
Order of bspline basis

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
PowerLoss
(modres, modfit, moddf, tc, TR, Run, alpha)¶ Estimates Powerloss due to mismodeling.
Usage: function [PowLoss] = PowerLoss(modres, modfit, moddf, tc, TR, Run, alpha)
Inputs:  modres:
residuals
 modfit:
model fit
 moddf:
model degrees of freedom
 tc:
time course
 TR:
time resolution
 Runs:
expermental design
 alpha:
alpha value
Output:  PowLoss:
Estimated power loss

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
ResidScan
(res, FWHM)¶ Calculates P(M>=t) where M is the max value of the smoothed residuals. In this implementation the residuals are smoothed using a Gaussian kernel.
Usage: function [p sres sres_ns] = ResidScan(res, FWHM)
Inputs:  res:
residual time course
 FWHM:
Full Width Half Maximum (in time units)
Outputs:  p:
pvalues
 sres:
smoothed residuals
 sres_ns:
smoothed residuals (non standardized)

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
get_parameters2
(hdrf, t)¶ Find model parameters
Height  h
Time to peak  p (in time units of TR seconds)
Width (at half peak)  w
Calculate Heights and Time to peak:
delta = 1/(t(2)t(1));

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
hrf_fit_one_voxel
(tc, TR, Runc, T, method, mode)¶ HRF estimation function for a single voxel;
Usage: function [h, fit, e, param] = hrf_fit_one_voxel(tc,TR,Runc,T,type,mode)
Implemented methods include: ILmodel (Deterministic/Stochastic), FIR (Regular/Smooth), and HRF (Canonical/+ temporal/+ temporal & dispersion)
Inputs:  tc:
time course
 TR:
time resolution
 Runs:
expermental design
 T:
length of estimated HRF
 type:
Model type
 mode:
Mode
Options:  p=1  only canonical HRF
 p=2  canonical + temporal derivative
 p=3  canonical + time and dispersion derivative
Outputs:  hrf:
estimated hemodynamic response function
 fit:
estimated time course
 e:
residual time course
 param:
estimated amplitude, height and width

HRF_Est_Toolbox2.
ilogit
(t)¶ Calculate the inverse logit function corresponding to the value t
Usage: function [L] = ilogit(t)
Output:  L:
exp(t)./(1+exp(t));
OptimizeDesign11¶

OptimizeDesign11.
optimizeGA
(GA)¶ Usage: M = optimizeGA(GA)
outputs a pseudorandom list of condition codes that optimizes multiple fitness measures for fMRI task designs
more help can be found in ga_example_script.m and in Genetic_Algorithm_readme.rtf

OptimizeDesign11.
optimizeGA_epochs
(GA)¶ outputs a randomordered list of condition #s that optimizes 3 fMRI considerations
 Ways to avoid block designs
 counterbalancing factor power lower limit cutoff pushes power higher
 Why using avg power is better than efficiency
 efficiency doesn’t account for 1/f model (altho here we just use a cutoff, the same thing) avoid transformation errors in using high pass filter efficiency is based on the sample size, determined by TR, of the model  but so is fft power...

OptimizeDesign11.
optimize_rand_search
(GA)¶ Just like the GA, but generates random designs each time!
outputs a randomordered list of condition #s that optimizes 3 fMRI considerations%
 Ways to avoid block designs
 counterbalancing factor power lower limit cutoff pushes power higher
 Why using avg power is better than efficiency
 efficiency doesn’t account for 1/f model (altho here we just use a cutoff, the same thing) avoid transformation errors in using high pass filter efficiency is based on the sample size, determined by TR, of the model  but so is fft power...
Miscellaneous Tools¶
Data_extraction¶

Data_extraction.
canlab_maskstats
(msks, imgs, varargin)¶ Produces comparison of pattern mask and images e.g., look at NPS pattern expression in set of beta images
Usage: MASKSTATS = canlab_maskstats(maskfiles,imgfiles,[options])
Inputs:  maskfiles:
string or cellstring of mask filenames or fmri_data object
 imgfiles:
string or cellstring of image filenames or fmri_data object
Optional Inputs:  ts:
timeseries treatment: each string in imgfiles is assumed to be a 4D file. Data will be returned with one column per time series and one volume per row. If not all timeseries are same length, all will be NaNpadded to the length of the longest timeseries.
Note: does not work with imgfiles input as fmri_data object
 dir2cell:
will sort stats into cells based on directory containing the imgfile they belong to such that each cell contains one directory’s worth of stats which is a vector with a value for each imgfile. :Examples:
# Input: a list of single trial betas for a set of subjects b = filenames('sub*/*heat_trials*.img'); ms = canlab_maskstats('nps',b,'dot_product','dir2cell');
Output: includes the set of cells that are input to a mediation analysis.
 keepzeros:
don’t remove zeros from imgfiles before taking measurements
 keepzerosmask:
don’t remove zeros from maskfiles before taking measurements
 single:
leave data as single (DEFAULT: convert to double)
 trinarize:
trinarize maskfile (set values larger than 0 to 1 and values less than zero to 1)
 noreshape:
don’t attempt to reshape results according to imgfiles array
 nobin:
don’t binarize mask before extracting mean or std
Note: ts, dir2cell, and noreshape are mutually exclusive options
BuiltIn Masks The following strings can be given as the maskfile argument to call up builtin mask files:
 nps:
 weights_NSF_grouppred_cvpcr.img
 nps_thresh:
 weights_NSF_grouppred_cvpcr_FDR05.img
 nps_thresh_smooth:
 weights_NSF_grouppred_cvpcr_FDR05_smoothed_fwhm05.img
Measure Options:  all:
 add: mean, dot_product, centered_dot_product,
cosine_similarity, and correlation
 mean: (DEFAULT)
apply binarized mask to images and return means mean(img .* abs(bin(mask)))
 std:
apply binarized mask to images and return standard deviations std(img .* abs(bin(mask)))
 dot_product:
dot(mask, img)
 cosine_similarity:
dot(mask, img) / (norm(mask) * norm(img))
 correlation:
corr(mask, img)
 centered_dot_product:
dot(maskmean(mask), imgmean(img))
Details:  imgfiles are spatially resampled to maskfiles
 voxels with zeros in maskfile are removed
 inmask voxels with zeros in imgfiles will generate warnings

Data_extraction.
cluster_tmask
(cl, tm, si, varargin)¶ Given clusters and a string name of a timage, finds voxels that exceed a specified tthreshold
Usage: [cl, varargout] = cluster_tmask(cl, tm, si, varargin)
Inputs:  cl:
clusters
 tm:
timage
 si:
subject index integer
 [dat]:
cluster_barplot data structure
creates new XYZ in the space of timage using cl.XYZmm coordinates in mm. Required fields of cl: XYZmm
 Calculates and saves singlesubject data avgd over voxels if:
 cl.all_data field is present
THIS WORKS if all_data has individual subject contrast estimates in it, with rows as subjects and columns as voxels indiv data saved in cl(region).timeseries(subject)
 cl.raw_data is present
raw_data should be time x voxels x subjects, a 3D matrix see output of extract_raw_data. indiv data saved in cl(region).indiv_timeseries(:, subject)
Note: Retains upper 50% of voxels; highest tvalues

Data_extraction.
extract_contrast_data
(P, clusters, varargin)¶ This function does not plot, but separates subclusters using pca / cluster_princomp.m based on pattern across all conditions, covariance (not correlation),
Usage: function [clusters, subcl] = extract_contrast_data(P, clusters)
Inputs:  P:
cell array of strings containing image file names (data extracted from these)
clusters:
Optional Inputs:  subclusters:
to get subclustering based on pca and clustering of voxels add the string ‘subclusters’ as an input argument
cell array: of strings with condition names
 split:
value is 1: to split into 2 plots (first half and last half of P)
value is 2: to plot individual subjects over bars
 center:
center parmeter values in plot (subtract row means) this gives closer to correct “within subjects” error bars and may be used when the overall parameter values have no meaning
 covs:
followed by betweensubject covariates (e.g., behavioral regressors) plots remove these before plotting means and std. errors
 max:
to make plots based on max zvalues within region for each dataset P not compatible with ‘split’ and ‘center’ (ignores these commands) right now, special for inhib  see also inhib2_cluster_barplot (good function)
 indiv:
to threshold based on individual tstatistics or contrast values
FOLLOW with cell array of timages or con images – usually, there will be one cell, with images for each subject in rows, to define voxels for each ss. BUT Tnames can be the same length as contrast images, one timg per subject per contrast, if desired.
Outputs: clusters struture, with CONTRAST substructure added substructure contains data extracted and image file names
This program uses XYZmm millimeter coordinates in clusters to find voxels So clusters and data files may have different dimensions.
Examples: cl = extract_contrast_data(EXPT.SNPM.P, cl, 'indiv', EXPT.FILES.Timgs{1}); cluster_barplot(EXPT.SNPM.P(7:12), clusters(2:3), {'ObjE' 'AttE' 'InteractE' 'ObjI' 'AttI' 'InteractI'}, 'split') [clusters, subclusters] = cluster_barplot(EXPT.SNPM.P(17:24), clusters, 'subclusters', 'split') RS2_8vs2_placeboCP = cluster_barplot(EXPT.SNPM.P([8 10 12 14 16]), RS2meta, 'indiv', T);
also see mask2clusters.m, a simpler version that just extracts clusters from a mask file.

Data_extraction.
extract_from_rois
(imgs_to_extract_from, mask_image, varargin)¶ Generic function for extracting image data from a mask or atlas image, and returning the data and averages within regions specified by the user.
Usage: [cl, imgdat] = extract_from_rois(imgs_to_extract_from, mask_image, varargin) Regions to average over can be either regions of contiguous voxels bounded by voxels with values of 0 or NaN, which are considered nondata values, or regions defined by unique integer codes in the mask image (i.e., for atlas images with unique codes for each defined region.) Mask/Atlas image does NOT have to be in the same space as the images to extract from. It will be remapped/resliced. extracted data is returned in single data format.
Inputs: char array of strings containing 4D image file names (data extracted from these)
mask_image to extract from
Optional Inputs:  average_over:
Default = ‘unique_mask_values’ to average over unique integer codes in the mask image (i.e., for atlas images with unique codes for each defined region)
OPT = ‘contiguous_regions’ to average over contiguous voxels bounded by voxels of 0 or NaN (nondata values)
Examples: imgs_to_extract_from = filenames('w*.nii','char'); mask_image = which('anat_lbpa_thal.img'); [cl, imgdat] = extract_from_rois(imgs_to_extract_from, mask_image);

Data_extraction.
extract_image_data
(imgs_to_extract_from, mask_image, varargin)¶ Generic function for extracting image data from a mask or atlas image, and returning the data and averages within regions specified by the user.
Usage: [imgdat, volInfo, cl] = extract_image_data(imgs_to_extract_from, mask_image, varargin)
Regions to average over can be either regions of contiguous voxels bounded by voxels with values of 0 or NaN, which are considered nondata values, or regions defined by unique integer codes in the mask image (i.e., for atlas images with unique codes for each defined region.)
Mask/Atlas image does NOT have to be in the same space as the images to extract from. It will be remapped/resliced.
extracted data is returned in single data format.
Inputs: char array of strings containing 4D image file names (data extracted from these)
mask_image to extract from
Optional inputs:  average_over:
Default = ‘contiguous_regions’ to average over contiguous voxels bounded by voxels of 0 or NaN (nondata values)
Alt. option = ‘unique_mask_values’ to average over unique integer codes in the mask image (i.e., for atlas images with unique codes for each defined region)
Examples: imgs_to_extract_from = filenames('w*.nii','char'); mask_image = which('anat_lbpa_thal.img'); [imgdat, volInfo, cl] = extract_image_data(imgs_to_extract_from, mask_image, 'unique_mask_values');
Related functions: For an objectoriented alternative, see the fmri_data class and extract_roi_averages method

Data_extraction.
extract_indiv_peak_data
(cl, imgs)¶ Purpose: to find individually significant regions within each subject and save average timecourses for each individual ROI for each subject
Usage: cl = extract_indiv_peak_data(cl,imgs)
Inputs:  cl:
is a clusters structure with one element per region. Each element (cluster) is a structure containing coordinates and data.
 imgs:
is a string matrix with one row per subject, with names of images used to define thresholds. These may be contrast or timages from individual subjects
The method of extraction is defined in cluster_tmask, which is currently to use 50% of voxels with the highest values in imgs(subject) for each subject, or 100% if 50% returns less than 5 voxels. It’s easy in cluster_tmask to use absolute tthresholds instead.
Required fields of cl:  XYZmm:
3 x k list of k coordinates in mm space
 raw_data:
time x voxels x subjects matrix of data for this region
Outputs appended to cl structure: indiv_timeseries, time x subjects averaged individual ROI timecourses
 :.INDIV:, a structure with the following information:
 tname, the name of the tmask (or contrast mask) entered
 XYZ, voxel coords for significant voxels for each subject
 XYZmm, mm coords for sig voxels for each subject
 sigt, logical matrix subjects x voxels for sig voxels
 maxt, max map value for each subject
 center, average coordinate for sig voxels for each subject
 mm_center, the same in mm
The spatial information may be used to correlate peak voxel location with behavior, for example.

Data_extraction.
read_hdr
(name, varargin)¶ Loads the analyze format header file from a file ‘name’
Usage: function hdr = read_hdr(name,[opt] datatype)
The function returns a structure defined as
 hdr = struct(...
‘sizeof_hdr’, fread(pFile, 1,’int32’),...
‘pad1’, setstr(fread(pFile, 28, ‘char’)),...
‘extents’, fread(pFile, 1,’int32’),...
‘pad2’, setstr(fread(pFile, 2, ‘char’)),...
‘regular’,setstr(fread(pFile, 1,’char’)), ...
‘pad3’, setstr(fread(pFile,1, ‘char’)),...
‘dims’, fread(pFile, 1,’int16’),...
‘xdim’, fread(pFile, 1,’int16’),...
‘ydim’, fread(pFile, 1,’int16’),...
‘zdim’, fread(pFile, 1,’int16’),...
‘tdim’, fread(pFile, 1,’int16’),...
‘pad4’, setstr(fread(pFile,20, ‘char’)),...
‘datatype’, fread(pFile, 1,’int16’),...
‘bits’, fread(pFile, 1,’int16’),...
‘pad5’, setstr(fread(pFile, 6, ‘char’)),...
‘xsize’, fread(pFile, 1,’float’),...
‘ysize’, fread(pFile, 1,’float’),...
‘zsize’, fread(pFile, 1,’float’),...
‘pad6’, setstr(fread(pFile, 48, ‘char’))...
‘glmax’, fread(pFile, 1,’int32’),...
‘glmin’, fread(pFile, 1,’int32’),... ‘descrip’, setstr(fread(pFile, 80,’char’)),...
‘aux_file’ , setstr(fread(pFile,24,’char’))’,...
‘orient’ , fread(pFile,1,’char’),...
‘origin’ , fread(pFile,5,’int16’),...
‘generated’ , setstr(fread(pFile,10,’char’))’,...
‘scannum’ , setstr(fread(pFile,10,’char’))’,...
‘patient_id’ , setstr(fread(pFile,10,’char’))’,...
‘exp_date’ , setstr(fread(pFile,10,’char’))’,...
‘exp_time’ , setstr(fread(pFile,10,’char’))’,...
‘hist_un0’ , setstr(fread(pFile,3,’char’))’,...
‘views’ , fread(pFile,1,’int32’),...
‘vols_added’ , fread(pFile,1,’int32’),...
‘start_field’ , fread(pFile,1,’int32’),...
‘field_skip’ , fread(pFile,1,’int32’),...
‘omax’ , fread(pFile,1,’int32’),...
‘omin’ , fread(pFile,1,’int32’),...
‘smax’ , fread(pFile,1,’int32’),...
‘smin’ , fread(pFile,1,’int32’) );

Data_extraction.
readim2
(varargin)¶ Usage: [array,hdr,h,whichslices,rows,cols,figh] = readim2(basename or array [opt],'p' [opt], 'sagg' or 'cor' [opt],flipy[opy],range [opt])
Inputs:  basename of file, without image extension ,OR
 3D array in the workspace to plot, OR
 nothing, to browse for file
 p:
to plot montage of slices to the screen
 sagg:
to rotate to saggital view
 cor:
to rotate to coronal view
 t:
to save array as double instead of int16  to save negative t values.
Outputs:  3d array of image
 hdr of image
 handles for axes of montage if plotting
Special Features:  range:
 specified in mm, must be LAST and FIFTH input argument.
 OR range can specify slices, e.g. 1:4:28
 clim:
color limits for axis plot, must be 1st or 2nd argument. form: [1 1]

Data_extraction.
timeseries_extract_slice
(V, sliceno, orientation)¶ For a given set of image names or memory mapped volumes (V) extracts data from slice # sliceno and returns an X x Y x time matrix of data.
Usage: function sl = timeseries_extract_slice(V,sliceno)

Data_extraction.
tor_extract_rois
(imnames, varargin)¶ This function gets timeseries data from all clusters in an SPM results output.
Usage: function [clusters, SPM, xX, xCon] = tor_extract_rois(imnames [can be empty],[opt] SPM, [opt] VOL, [opt] xX)
Inputs:  imnames:
a matrix of image names, in spm_list_files output format if empty, no timeseries data will be extracted.
 clusters:
if only 2 arguments, clusters structure is 2nd arg, and we extract data using existing clusters structure
If 3 arguments, enter SPM and VOL to extract data from VOXEL coordinates in these structures  SPM: SPM variable from loaded results  VOL: VOL variable from loaded results
Optional 4th argument fits a design matrix and returns betas  xX: xX design matrix to fit to timeseries OR 4th argument can be 0 (or any nonstructure arg), suppressing verbose output.
[Last 2 arguments are optional. Use if results are already loaded into workspace]
Automatic fitting of model to cluster timeseries average using analyze_cluster_rois with HighPass filter length of your choice. This only works if you input only the file names or input all optional arguments, including xX
NOTE (WARNING): WORKS ON XYZ VOXEL COORDINATES  TRANSFORMATION TO DIFFERENT SPACES ONLY IF ENTERING 2 ARGS, 1st one names, 2nd one clusters
see transform_coordinates.m for transformation, or check_spm_mat, or cluster_interp.
Data_processing_tools¶

Data_processing_tools.
center_of_mass
(XYZ, Z)¶ This function returns the center of mass of a cluster of voxels or mm coordinates defined as the nearest inlist coordinate to the average of the coordinate values weighted by the Zscore
Usage: com = center_of_mass(XYZ,Z)
assigns a rank to each coordinate based on Z scores and includes
enter a 3 x n list of XYZ coordinates returns 1 x 3 center of mass

Data_processing_tools.
detransition
(y, varargin)¶ For fMRI timeseries that contains large ‘jump’ artifacts due to motion correction or other problems.
Usage: y = detransition(y,[doplot])
Removes these large spikes. Updated version built into spikecorrect in trimts

Data_processing_tools.
downsample_scnlab
(y, orig_samprate, new_samprate, varargin)¶ Uses linear interpolation to resample a vector from one sampling rate to another
Usage: [yi, xi] = downsample_scnlab(y, orig_samprate, new_samprate, [doplot])
Inputs:  orig_samprate:
sampling rate in Hz
 new_samprate:
desired sampling rate in Hz
Example: % Downsample a 100 Hz signal to a scanning TR of 2 sec % signal at 100 Hz, sample to lowfreq TR of 0.5 hz (2 sec TR) % every 100 / TR = 100/.5 = 200 samples [yi, xi] = downsample_scnlab(y, 100, .5)

Data_processing_tools.
fft_plot_scnlab
(dat, TR, varargin)¶ Usage: [myfft, freq, handle] = fft_plot_scnlab(dat, TR, varargin)
Inputs:  dat:
is a data vector (column)
 TR:
is the sampling rate of the data you put in in seconds / sample, or 1/Hz
Optional inputs:  ‘samefig’
 ‘color, [‘b’] or other color
 ‘bar’
 ‘linebar’: both line and bar
Examples: % plot effects of filtering on a difference % between two regressors spm_hplength = SPM.xX.K.HParam; d = SPM.xX.X * SPM.xCon(mycon).c(:, 1); create_figure('Contrast'); plot(d) % contrast we care about px = pinv(SPM.xX.K.X0); % pinv of the filtering matrix y = d; y = y  SPM.xX.K.X0 * px * y; % residuals after filtering [myfft, freq, handle] = fft_plot_scnlab(d, 2); hold on; [myfft2, freq2, handle] = fft_plot_scnlab(y, 2); set(handle,'Color','r') plot_vertical_line(1/spm_hplength) set(ans, 'Color', 'b', 'LineWidth', 3)

Data_processing_tools.
filterAdjust
(O)¶ Usage: [y,O,X,S] = filterAdjust(OPTIONS)
O:  O.y:
signal
 O.HP:
high pass freq. cutoff
 O.TR:
sampling rate in s
 O.doHP:
[0 or 1]  do HP filter (spm), default is 0
 O.doLP:
 [0, 1, 2]  do LP filter (spm), default is 0
2 = Gaussian filter with TR*2 s length
 O.firstimg:
sets values for first image in each run to mean of the remaining values. Good for removing firstimage artifacts present in some scanner sequences. Default is 1.
 O.cyclecorrection:
checks for unimodal (normally distributed) data within each session, because some bimodal data that cycles between two mean scanner values has been observed in some data. if a high proportion of outliers are found in nonnormal data, subtracts mean of higher mode to adjust data. Sorrynot clear. Check the code. Default is 0
 O.cyclecorrection2:
removes large transitions from data, as in detransition.m. Default is 0. Artifacts may be acquisition or motioncorrection/resampling related.
We do this after filtering, but if there’s trouble, we redo the scanadjust and filtering, because ‘cycling’ can affect these.
 O.scanadjust:
 [0 or 1]  adjust to scan means, default is 0
 If O.X is entered, assumes this is the session mean matrix,
instead of recomputing.
 O.percent:
[0 or 1]  adjust to percent change from baseline, default is 0
 O.filtertype:
 filter style, default is ‘none’
 ‘spm’, use spm’s filtering
 if O.S is entered, uses this instead of recomputing
 ‘fourier’, Doug’s fourier filter
 ‘fouriernotch’, Omit frequencies between HP(1) and HP(2)
 ‘cheby’, chebyshev
 ‘Luis’, Luis’ custom filter
 ‘none’, no filtering (or leave field out).
 O.HP:
for SPM, the filter cutoff in s for fourier, the HP value or the [HP LP] values notches out everything slower than HP and faster than LP, in s (1/s = Hz).
 O.nruns:
number of runs (scanadjust), default is 1
 O.adjustmatrix:
custom adjustment matrix to regress out (e.g., movement params)
 O.plot [0 or 1]:
plots intermediate products, default is 0
 O.verbose [0 or 1]:
verbose output
 O.trimts [0 or std]:
trim overall timseries values to std, 0 for no trimming
 O.lindetrend:
specify linear detrending of timeseries. occurs after adjustment and filtering and windsorizing
 detrending option > what to enter in this field:
 no detrending > empty, missing field, or 0
 detrending every n elements > single number (n)
 piecewise linear detrend > ROW vector of breakpoints (do not specify 1 as the start of the 1st segment.)

Data_processing_tools.
fir2htw2
(b, varargin)¶ Estimates height, time to peak, and width of FIR response
Usage: [h,t,w,w_times,halfh, auc] = fir2htw2(b,[hconstraint],[doplot],[colors cell])
Inputs:  b:
beta/estimate series for hemodynamic response curve
 hconstraint:**
max time in samples that can be considered the peak (default = last sample)
 doplot:**
flag for plot, 1/0
 colors:**
cell vector of colors for plot
minh = min height
This version uses turning points (zero gradient) to find the largest “hump” in the data and the time it occurs.
Example: hrf = spm_hrf(.5); hrf = hrf ./ max(hrf); hrf = hrf + .1 * randn(length(hrf), 1); create_figure('hrf'); plot(hrf); [h,t,w,w_times,halfh, auc] = fir2htw2(hrf, [], 1);

Data_processing_tools.
get_snr
(data)¶ Data is a matrix whos columns index voxels, and rows index subjects (or trials, etc.)
Usage: snr = get_snr(data)

Data_processing_tools.
htw_from_fit
(hrf, b, dt, varargin)¶ Estimates height, time to peak, width, and area under the curve of a fitted response
Usage: h, t, w, auc, w_times, halfh] = htw_from_fit(hrf, b, dt, [optional arguments])
Inputs:  hrf:
 a matrix of columns that form a linear basis set for an
event type in an fMRI design, t time points x k basis functions
 b:
betas associated with the columns of hrf, k x 1
 dt:
the sampling resolution of hrf (in seconds)
Optional Inputs:  plot:
make plot
 verbose:
verbose output
 startval:
followed by the starting value in sec within which to calculate peak
 endval:
followed by the ending value in sec within which to calculate peak
 colors:
followed by a cell array, for example, {‘r’} or {[1 0 0]}
This function is essentially the same as fir2htw2.m, but the main differences are:
 It imposes a time constraint on the peak amplitude automatically, which is constrained to be between 4 seconds and 12 seconds (endval, which was hconstraint) by default. YOU MAY WANT TO CHANGE hconstraint depending on whether you’re expecting delayed hemodynamic responses. This requires input of the sampling resolution (e.g., dt)
 This function will automatically create fitted responses, given a basis set and betas (parameters). This is different from fir2htw2.m, which takes the fitted response as input.
 The method for getting width (w) has been changed to work better for multimodal (multipeak) responses.
Otherwise, the algorithm is the same. See Lindquist and Wager, 2007, for simulations that use a version of this method to estimate HRFs using different kinds of models.
Notes on scaling: The scaling of the amplitude depends on the scaling of the hrf basis set, which (in SPM) depends on the time resolution. You should at least use an hrf basis set with the same scaling for all subjects in a group analysis. The amplitude of the fitted response is interpreted as the amplitude of the unit “impulse response,” assuming that the hrf you enter here is the same as the impulse response function you used to create the design matrix. In SPM5, higherres impulse response functions are normalized by their positive sum, and the higher the time resolution, the lower the amplitude of the unit HRF. (The scaling of regressors in the SPM design matrix isn’t affected, because the hrf basis functions are convolved with a boxcar that also depends on the time resolution. The bottom line is that if all your subjects have the same scaling, you should be fine. And, secondly, the amplitudes that come out of this function reflect the scaling of the HRF you put in and are for an impulse response, NOT for an “event,” and so the scaling here would not be expected to match up with the amplitudes on a plot that you’d get from a selective average timecourse plot, unless you adjust by multiplying by the number of elements in SPMs “hires” onset boxcar to adjust.
For example: With “zeroduration” events, an hrf input scaled to reflect “event response” amplitudes might look something like this: (**may not be exactly right because i think dt is in sec) figure; plot(conv(SPM.xBF.bf(:, 1), my_ons)) my_ons = ones(1, TR ./ SPM.xBF.dt . SPM.Sess.U(1).dur(1));
If you have epochs and want “epoch response” amplitude, you have to consider that as well. If your durations are specified in TRs, and all durations are the same: TR = SPM.xY.RT; my_ons = ones(1, TR ./ SPM.xBF.dt .* SPM.Sess.U(1).dur(1));
minh = min height
This version uses turning points (zero gradient) to find the largest “hump” in the data and the time it occurs.
Examples: % Load and SPM mat file and use the basis set stored in that, and use % that as the hrf. Generate some arbitrary combos to test different shapes: % cd('my spm directory') % load SPM [h, t, w, auc] = htw_from_fit(SPM.xBF.bf, [1 .4 .4]', SPM.xBF.dt, 'plot', 'verbose'); for i = 1:20 [h, t, w, auc] = htw_from_fit(SPM.xBF.bf, randn(3, 1), SPM.xBF.dt, 'plot'); pause(1.5); end % Generate an SPM basis set at a lower resolution, and try that: bf = spm_get_bf(struct('name', 'hrf (with time and dispersion derivatives)', 'length', 30, 'dt', 1)); for i = 1:20 [h, t, w, auc] = htw_from_fit(bf.bf, randn(3, 1), bf.dt, 'plot'); h, t, w, auc, pause(1.5) end

Data_processing_tools.
luisFilter
(data, TR, cutoff, verbose)¶ This is a low pass FIR filter using the Parks Mclellan design algorithm The phase introduced by the filter is linear and is undone by filtering the data again, backwards if you want to see what it does to the data, use verbose=1 if just want to filter the data, don’t use the argument at all.
Usage: function outdata = luisFilter(data, TR, cutoff [, verbose])
close all
These are the important lines of the code %%%%%%%%%%%%%

Data_processing_tools.
nuisance_cov_estimates
(X, images, SETUP, varargin)¶ Estimates Fmap for model parameters of interest Writes to disk: ‘F_cols_of_interest.img’ ‘p_cols_of_interest.img’ (3D images) ‘resid_full_model.img’ (a 4D image)
Locates voxels whose activity is unrelated to the model
Extracts principal components from these voxels for use as covariates in subsequent models
Note: invalidates statistical inference in subsequent models based on these data, but may improve predictive accuracy and singletrial model.
Usage: nuisance_cov_estimates(X, images, SETUP, varargin)
Defining the SETUP structure with inputs: SETUP.(fields)
 .wh_of_interest:
 vector of which columns of X matrix are of interest
 % columns of interest in X matrix; tests var explained by these with Ftest
 .mask:
 name of mask image
 .TR:
 repetition time of volume (image) acquisition
 .HPlength:
 highpass filter length, in s
 .scans_per_session:
 vector of # volumes in each run, e.g., [128 128 128 128 128]
 .dummyscans:
 indices of images in each run that will be modeled with separate dummy variables
 .startslice:
 start at slice #...
SETUP Optional Inputs:  nopreproc:
to skip preprocessing (i.e., for triallevel inputs)

Data_processing_tools.
resample_scnlab
(data, p, q, varargin)¶ Resample : Uses matlab’s resample.m, but pads ends to avoid edge artifacts
Usage: [y, x] = resample_scnlab(data, p, q) % OR [y, x] = resample_scnlab(data, p, q, origHz, targetHz)
 Y = RESAMPLE(X,P,Q) resamples the sequence in vector X at P/Q times
 the original sample rate using a polyphase implementation. Y is P/Q times the length of X (or the ceiling of this if P/Q is not an integer). P and Q must be positive integers.
Other features:
Returns x values for resampled data in original index scale
IF two additional args are entered (origHz and targetHz), p and q are determined automatically, based on your desired sampling rate (targetHz)
Example: create_figure('test'); plot(y); [y2, x] = resample_scnlab(y, 1, 5); plot(x, y2, 'r'); %Use target Hz...take 100 Hz vector and resample at 20 Hz create_figure('test'); plot(y); [y2, x] = resample_scnlab(y, [], [], 100, 20); plot(x, y2, 'r');

Data_processing_tools.
scale
(x, varargin)¶ Centers and scales column vectors to mean 0 and st. deviation 1
Usage: x = scale(x,[just center])

Data_processing_tools.
scnlab_filter_fmri_data
(imgs, mvmt, mask, tr, spersess, hp)¶ Outlier and artifact removal for one subject Writes new output images for timeseries
Usage: names = scnlab_filter_fmri_data(imgs, mvmt, mask, tr, spersess, hp)
Examples: OUT = mean_image(imgs, 'mean_ravol.img',ones(size(imgs,1),1)); spm_imcalc_ui('mean_ravol.img', 'graymatter.img', 'i1 > 0'); spm_image('init', 'graymatter.img'); names = scnlab_filter_fmri_data(imgs, mvmt, 'graymatter.img', 2, repmat(184, 1, 6), 80);

Data_processing_tools.
scnlab_outlier_id
(varargin)¶ Methods (modes of operation)
Setup: Run this method first to generate an options structure OPT that can be passed in along with any data vector for speedy processing Usage: OPT = scnlab_outlier_id('setup', 'tr', 2, 'spersess', [184 184 184 184 184 184], 'dummy', 1:3, 'hp', 100, 'mad', 4, 'niter', 3, 'mvmt', mvmt);
Data: Run this method second with an alreadycreated OPT and a data vector from one time series [y2, outliers, num_outliers, mvmt_rsquare] = scnlab_outlier_id('data', y, 'options', OPT);
all outputs:
[y2, out, nout, mvmtrsq, mvmt_baseline_rsquare, yperc, rawvarp, rawvarF, percvarp, percvarF, ... ybase] = scnlab_outlier_id('data', y, 'options', OPT);
Example: [dat, volInfo] = iimg_get_data('graymask.img', imgs); y = dat(:,1); % SETUP: OPT = scnlab_outlier_id('setup', 'tr', 2, 'spersess', [184 184 184 184 184 184], 'dummy', 1:3, 'hp', 100, 'mad', 4, 'niter', 3, 'mvmt', mvmt); % RUN: [y2, outliers, num_outliers] = scnlab_outlier_id('data', y, 'options', OPT); % run on whole brain [dat, volInfo] = iimg_get_data('graymask.img', imgs); OPT = scnlab_outlier_id('setup', 'tr', 2, 'spersess', [184 184 184 184 184 184], 'dummy', 1:2, 'hp', 100, 'mad', 4, 'niter', 5, 'mvmt', mvmt); OPT.doplot = 0; OPT.verbose = 0; fhandle = @(y) scnlab_outlier_id('data', y, 'options', OPT); y2 = matrix_eval_function(dat, fhandle)';

Data_processing_tools.
selective_average
(y, onsets, varargin)¶ Purpose: Get a selective average of values of data vector y, given onsets specified in onsets. Onsets can be fractional; in this case, linear interpolation is used.
Usage: [averages, stderrs, data, indices] = selective_average(y, onsets, varargin)
Inputs:  y:
is a data vector to get selective averages from. It should be a column vector.
 onsets:
should be a cell array, with one cell per condition each cell should contain a column vector of onset times in SAMPLES (same resolution as y; e.g., in TRs, if y is an fMRI time series.
Optional Inputs:  t:
followed by number of time points following onset to use; default is 20
 plot:
plot results.
 baseline:
followed by vector of which time points are baseline values; will subtract from each
Outputs:  data:
indices, averages, stderrs: Cell vectors, one cell per condition
 data, indices:
time points (observations) x trials (onsets)
 indices:
Cell vector, one cell per condition; time points (observations) x trials (onsets)
Examples: onsets = {[1 10 30 80]' [20 60 90]'}; y = (1:120)'; [averages, stderrs, data, indices] = selective_average(y, onsets, 't', 20) V = spm_vol(EXPT.FILES.im_files{1}); y = spm_get_data(V, [10 10 10 1]'); [averages, stderrs, data, indices] = selective_average(y, onsets2(1), 't', 20, 'plot');

Data_processing_tools.
selective_average_group
(V, onsets, xyz_mm_pos, varargin)¶ uses selective_average.m used in selective_average_interactive_view_init.m
Examples: [group_avgs, group_stes, subject_avgs, subject_stes] = selective_average_group(V, onsets, vox, 'basepts', 1:2, 'plotstes', 0); % Format onsets from onsets2 (NSF study format) into correct format for this function N = length(imgs); n_conditions = size(eventdesign{1}, 2); onsets = cell(1, N); for i = 1:N for j = 1:n_conditions onsets{i}{j} = onsets2{i}(find(eventdesign{i}(:, j))); end end

Data_processing_tools.
smooth_timeseries
(x, perc)¶ Make exponential smoothing function with perc proportion of data points (0 < perc < 1) OR specify length directly, as % of points to 0 weight
Usage: [x,V] = smooth_timeseries(x,perc)
apply smoothing filter V to data (x), V * x (works just as well for a matrix of column vectors) You could also apply it to a model matrix X

Data_processing_tools.
splineDetrend
(v, varargin)¶ What it does: A spline detrend with knot points every 2 s (hard coded number) I made this up too  it’s not the FDA approved method.
Usage: [fv,bp,yy,myfft] = splineDetrend(v,'p' [opt])
Input:  v:
a vector to be detrended
Optional Inputs:  p:
means plot
any other opt argument sets the knots and is treated as an integer, with detrending every n elements.
Outputs:  fv:
the detrended vector, bp, the knot points, and myfft, the abs(fft) of the detrended vector.
Examples: tmp = cl(1).raw_data(:,1,6); tmp2 = trimts(tmp,3,[],1); [fv,bp,yy]=splineDetrend(tmp2); [fv,bp] = splineDetrend(tmp2,'p');

Data_processing_tools.
splinetrim
(y, varargin)¶ Usage: function [y,ntrimmed,spikes, yfit] = splinetrim(y,[iqrmult],[knotrate],[X],['p'])
Uses a robust measure of deviations in a timeseries gradient to find highvelocity ‘spikes’, presumed to be artifacts
Uses spline interpolation to replace spikes with reasonable values.
Input:  y:
a timeseries
Optional Inputs:  iqrmult:
 how many times the interquartile range above which velocities are
outliers, default is 1.5
 knotrate:
sets knot points every k observations, default is 3
 X:
matrix of session means or other linear regressors to remove
 p:
plot the results
X and ‘p’ can be entered in any order, but after iqrmult and knotrate
Examples: [y2,nt] = splinetrim(trialdat,3,5,'p'); nt
 setup

Data_processing_tools.
trimts
(y, sd, X, varargin)¶ Adjusts for scan effects (unless X is empty)
 Windsorizes timeseries to sd standard deviations
 Recursive: 3 steps
Adds scan effects back into timeseries
Usage: function [y,ntrimmed,allw] = trimts(y,sd,X,[do spike correct],[trimming iterations],[MADs])
Spike correct: Some attempt at automatic adjustment for abrupt level shifts in data; default is 0, enter 1 to do this “Spikes” are IDd as values more than 10 MADs (by default) from moving average with 20 image FWHM Replaces “spike” data values with moving average
iterations: number of cycles through trimming; default is 3
MADs: allows you to change the number of MADs above which values are IDd as “spikes”
filter y using X matrix; yf is residuals

Data_processing_tools.
use_spm_filter
(TR, dims, LChoice, HChoice, HParam, varargin)¶ Usage: function [S,KL,KH] = use_spm_filter(TR,dim of filter,LChoice,HChoice,HP filter in s,[LP Gauss len in s])
Inputs:  K{s}.LChoice:
Lowpass filtering {‘hrf’ ‘Gaussian’ ‘none’}
 K{s}.LParam:
Gaussian parameter in seconds
 K{s}.HChoice:
Highpass filtering {‘specify’ ‘none’}
Filename_tools¶

Filename_tools.
check_valid_imagename
(P, varargin)¶ Usage: P = check_valid_imagename(P, [return error])
Optional Input: 0 to return empty output, 1 to break with an error message,
2 to return list of bad/missing images, or
nothing to select missing filenames graphically

Filename_tools.
copy_image_files
(image_list, to_dir, varargin)¶ Copies a set of image files from one directory to another, creating the directory if needed.
Usage: function output_names = copy_image_files(image_list, to_dir, [method='copy' or 'move'], varargin)
MAC OSX only!!
For .img files, will look for a paired .hdr and copy it automatically. Works for nonimage files (e.g., .txt) as well.
Other variable args:
Will take flags:
‘append image number’ > will append a number to each file corresponding to the order listed, e.g., 1 for the first, 2 for the 2nd, etc.
‘append string’ > followed by string to append
with both flags and ‘run’ for append string, a matrix of [run1/vols.img; run2/vols.img] would become [vols_run0001.img vols_run0002.img]

Filename_tools.
delete_ana_imgs
(imgs)¶  Function to delete a list of .img files
 automatically removes associated .hdr files as well.
 accepts cellstr or char inputs
Usage: delete_ana_imgs(imgs)

Filename_tools.
dicom_tarzip
(varargin)¶ tars all .dcm files in subdirectories you specify, and deletes the original .dcm files if successful.
Inputs: none (default): all directories under the current one directory wildcard, e.g., ‘run*’ to search only those subdirectories. absolute path names should also be ok. Examples: dicom_tarzip dicom_tarzip('18*')
Or, let’s say you have runs within subjects, and dicom files within run dirs. Subject dirs all start with NSF*. run dirs all start with 18* Starting from the directory above subjects, you could do this to zip ALL subjects:
subjdirs = dir('NSF*'); for s = 1:length(subjdirs) dicom_tarzip([subjdirs(s).name filesep '18*']); end
Needless to say, use this with extreme caution, as it deletes your original files. And test it thoroughly with a backup dataset first!!

Filename_tools.
escapeForShell
(string)¶ Returns converted string for use with the current OS’s shell. Hence, it’s operation will be different, depending on where it’s executed.
Usage: [escapedString] = escapeForShell(string)

Filename_tools.
expand_4d_filenames
(imgs, nvols)¶ Expand a list of image names to 4D name format as used by SPM2/5 Also compatible with SPM8.
Usage: [spm_imgs] = expand_4d_filenames(imgs, [nvols])
This function runs with either imgs, nvols, or both variables defined If the images exist, spm_imgs is returned as a char matrix with each row in the following format: ‘path/filename.ext,[N]’ where [N] is the number of the given image. The space after [N] is padded with blanks to ensure that all the image names fit properly.
Example: spm_imgs = expand_4d_filenames('run03.img', 10)

Filename_tools.
filename_get_new_root_dir
(P, newroot, nlevels)¶ Usage: Pout = filename_get_new_root_dir(P,newroot,nlevels)
Inputs:  P:
is files (string matrix)
 newroot:
Append a new root directory to filenames if newroot is empty, prompt
 nlevels:
 Keeps nlevels dirs deep from old directory:
 keeps only filename
 keeps filename plus last subdir
 keeps filename plus last 2 subdirs, etc.
Examples: Pout = filename_get_new_root_dir(EXPT.SNPM.P{3},pwd,2) % Change root dir to pwd for all images in EXPT for i=1:length(EXPT.SNPM.P), EXPT.SNPM.P{i} = filename_get_new_root_dir(EXPT.SNPM.P{i},pwd,2); end
Note: see regexprep.m for a simpler way!!! This function could be improved by using it.

Filename_tools.
getfullpath
(Pspm)¶ Searches for file in curr dir, then in specified dir
Usage: Pso = getfullpath(Pspm)
Input:  Pspm:
is file name with no path or relative path
Output: Returns absolute path name (full path)

Filename_tools.
nums_from_text
(mytext)¶ returns numeric values of numbers embedded in text strings given text string input
Usage: function [nums,whnums] = nums_from_text(mytext)

Filename_tools.
read_excel
(excelfilename, has_header_row)¶ Reads each sheet of an Excel input file into a data structure DAT
Usage: DAT = read_excel(excelfilename, has_header_row [1 or 0])  reads multiple sheets  adds fields named with variable names for easy access  uses importdata <matlab internal> to do most of the work
Input:  excelfilename:
Char array with full path of input filename
Outputs:  DAT:
Structure with DAT.(sheetname).(varname) data fields DAT.(sheetname).varnames is cell array of var names
 behdat:
Data structure as read in by importdata
Examples: excelfilename = fullfile(basedir, 'data', 'SchulzNewcorn_regressor_demograph.xlsx'); has_header_row = 1; [DAT, behdat] = read_excel(excelfilename, has_header_row)
See also: importdata, read_database, read_database2, read_edat_output_2008, read_physio_data

Filename_tools.
remove_disdaq_vols
(img_files, num_vols_per_run, num_disdaq_vols, varargin)¶ Usage: new_files = remove_disdaq_vols(img_files, num_vols_per_run, num_disdaq_vols, ['overwrite', 01], ['FSLOUTPUTTYPE', fsl_output_type], ['strict', 01])
Inputs:  img_files:
cellstr of files to remove disdaqs from  each cell represents a run
 num_vols_per_run:
vector of volume counts per run, not including disdaq vols
 num_disdaq_vols:
constant describing how many data points to remove from the beginning of each run
 ‘overwrite’:
if set, will overwriting images in place  defaults to 0
 ‘FSLOUTPUTTYPE’:
outputfile type  defaults to ‘NIFTI’
 ‘strict’:
if set, will error out unless data given to it is exactly proper length  defaults to 1  turn off ONLY with good reason
Output:  new_files:
input files, but with a ‘d’ prepended, unless ‘overwriting’ was specified
NB: Not set up for 3d files yet!!!
Examples: % for an experiment num_vols_per_run = [124 140 109]; % NOT including disdaqs num_disdaq_vols = 4;

Filename_tools.
rename_lowercase
()¶ renames all files in dir with lower case versions if all characters are capitalized.
Example: d = dir('0*'); for i=1:length(d),cd(d(i).name),rename_lowercase, cd .., end

Filename_tools.
rename_uppercase
()¶ renames all files in dir with upper case versions if all characters are capitalized.
Example: d = dir('0*'); for i=1:length(d),cd(d(i).name),rename_lowercase, cd .., end

Filename_tools.
scan_get_files
(n, filt, mesg, wd)¶ Dropin replacement for spm_get. Main advantage is that it can use spm_select for SPM5+ to mimic older spm_get behavior.
Usage: files = scan_get_files(n, filt, mesg, wd)

Filename_tools.
sort_image_filenames
(P)¶ Usage: [P, indices] = sort_image_filenames(P)
Not all image name listing functions return imgs in the correct numbered order!
This function resorts a string matrix of image file names by image number, in ascending order At most, filename can have one number in it, or error is returned
P can be a string matrix of a cell of string matrices
hewma_utility¶

hewma_utility.
Gaussian_mix
(x, niter, basepts, verbose, doplot, doplot2)¶ TwoGaussian mixture model
Usage: [ind,ind2,stats] = Gaussian_mix(x,niter,basepts,verbose,doplot, doplot2)
Inputs:  x:
data
 iter:
number of iterations
 basepts:
number of baseline pts at start of run. The modal class in the baseline period is defined as the 0class
Outputs:  ind:
indicator function of class belonging
 ind2:
indicator function of class belonging where 3 consecutive points are needed to switch states
 mu:
mean vector
 sigma:
standard deviation
 p:
probability that latent class random variable (delta) is equal to [0,1]
Examples: [ind,ind2,stats] = Gaussian_mix(linear_detrending(dat),20); % dat is n subjects by t time points % plotting is on % Simulated data r = normrnd(1, 1, 200, 1); r(1:50) = r(1:50) + normrnd(3, 1, 50, 1); [ind, ind2, stats] = Gaussian_mix(r, 50, [], 0, 1);
We recommend 50 iterations ..
Set up inputs

hewma_utility.
change_point
(t, tt, Mode, tthresh)¶ Usage: [cp,tm,b,t,wh,ooc_vector] = change_point(t,tt,Mode,tthresh) [cp,baseline mean,max t value,time of max t] = change_point(Zm,sterr,tt,tthresh)
Inputs:  tt:
is number of baseline timepoints
 t:
is group tvalue timeseries
 Mode: ‘thresh’ or ‘time’:
if ‘thresh’: tthresh = threshold for significant tvalues.
change_point finds the first significant suprathreshold tvalue and looks back in time to estimate the change point.
if Mode = ‘time’
change_point finds the estimated changepoint for process determined to be out of control at time tthresh
Outputs:  wh:
indices of out of control points
 ooc_vector:
indicator vector for ooc points

hewma_utility.
cluster_kmeans_parcel
(x, CLU, doplot, varargin)¶ Kmeans clustering of voxels
Usage: [cl2,nclasses,colors] = function cluster_kmeans_parcel(x,CLU,doplot,[overlay img])
Inputs:  x:
a voxels x data matrix
 CLU:
a structure containing a list of XYZ coordinates and zscores for voxels (see clusters2CLU.m)
a plot flag
Outputs:  cl2:
a klength cell array of clusters structures each cell contains a clusters structure for one data class

hewma_utility.
cnt_runs
(tc)¶ Counts number of contiguous 1s in a timeseries
Usage: function [cnt, tot, lenmat] = cnt_runs(tc)

hewma_utility.
ewma5
(X, lambda, L, type, tt, doplot)¶ EWMA  Exponentially Weighted Moving Average for fMRI slice
Usage: SMap, SMapTh, CPMap, CNTMap, TWidMap, W1Map, W2Map, W3Map, Tsq,stats] = ewma3(X, lambda , L, type);
Inputs:  X:
Data over one slice (N x N x T data matrix) or (N x T) data matrix
 lambda:
smoothing factor
 L:
width of control limits, in standard errors
 type:
Type of noise model  White Noise: ‘WN’, AR(1): ‘AR’, AR+WN: ‘ARMA’
Outputs:  SMap:
Significance Map
 SMap:
Significance Map Thresholded at L standard errors
 CPMap:
Changepoint Map
 CNTMap:
Map that depicts the number of times the process is outofcontrol
 TWidMap:
map of total number of points outofcontrol (all runs)
 W1Map:
map of number of points outofcontrol in first run
 W2Map:
map of number of points outofcontrol in second run
 W3Map:
map of number of points outofcontrol in third run
 Tsq:
Squared, normalized data set for multisubject analysis
 stats.model:
noise type
 stats.lam:
value of lambda
 stats.Z:
EWMA statistic (smoothed timeseries)
 stats.var:
variance of EWMA statistic
 stats.doasym:
1 for asymptotic variance 0 otherwise
 stats.dim:
data dimension
 stats.Z3:
EWMA statistic on the format NxVxT
 stats.UCL:
upper control limit (at L standard errors, depends on lambda)
 stats.LCL:
lower control limit
Examples: % to plot voxel i,j from a slice i=8; j=17; ts=squeeze(fsl(i,j,:)); tor_fig; plot(ts); hold on; plot(squeeze(stats.Z(i,j,:)),'r'); plot(squeeze(stats.UCL(i,j,:)),'r:'); plot(squeeze(stats.LCL(i,j,:)),'r:'); plot([chptmap(i,j)],stats.Z(i,j,chptmap(i,j)),'yo','MarkerFaceColor','r')

hewma_utility.
get_ax_slice
(imgs, slice_num)¶ Get an axial slice
Usage: function slice_data = get_ax_slice(imgs, slice_num)
Inputs:  imgs:
img filenames or spm_vols eg. ‘spmT_0004.img’;
 slice_num:
slice number eg. 31
Output:  slice_data:
unprocessed slice data

hewma_utility.
get_max_t
(Zpop, sterr, tt)¶ Usage: [t,tm,b] = get_max_t(Zpop,sterr,tt)
Outputs:  t:
tvalue timeseries
 tm:
max tvalue (abs)
 b:
time (index) of max tvalue

hewma_utility.
hewma2
(Zm, varZm, lambda, varargin)¶ Usage: function [p,tm,Zcor,sterr,Zpop,tvals,sb,stats] = hewma2(Zm, varZm, lambda,[doplot],[dodetrend],[grpcontrast], [tt]);
Hierarchical (Group) Ewma  HEWMA
Inputs:  Zm:
data matrix (nsubjects x Time)
 varZm:
variance for each time point and subject
 lambda:
smoothing parameter
Optional: Plot flag, 1 or 0
Outputs:  p:
pvalue
 tm:
maximumum (over time) group tstatistic
 Zcor:
temporalsearch corrected Zscore (max t  nullmaxt) / std(nullmax t)
Note: The speed of this function is largely determined by nrep, which is
the number of repititions in the Monte carlo integration. A large value of nrep gives greater accuracy, but is slower.
Examples: % Generate random data where there should be a true effect and test n = noisevector(100,[1 .9 .8 .6 .4 .1],1); n = [zeros(1,60) n]; for i = 1:20, Zm(i,:) = n + randn(1,160);,end varZm = ones(size(Zm)); [p,tm,Zcor,sterr,Zpop,tvals,sb,stats] = hewma2(Zm, varZm,.2,1); % Now try with random, nonidentical weights: varZm = rand(size(Zm)); % Now try with random autocorrelated data for i = 1:20, Zm(i,:) = noisevector(160,[1 .9 .8 .5 .2],1)';,end [p,tm,Zcor,sterr,Zpop,tvals,sb,stats] = hewma2(Zm, varZm, .2,1); % Add a group difference: n = noisevector(100,[1 .9 .8 .6 .4 .1],1); n = [zeros(1,60) n]; for i = 1:10, Zm(i,:) = n + randn(1,160);,end n = noisevector(100,[1 .9 .8 .6 .4 .1],1); n = [zeros(1,60) n]; for i = 11:20, Zm(i,:) = n + randn(1,160);,end varZm = ones(size(Zm)); [p,tm,Zcor,sterr,Zpop,tvals,sb,stats] = hewma2(Zm, varZm,.2,1,0,[ones(10,1); 1*ones(10,1)]); % Add linear drift, to test detrending: n = noisevector(100,[1 .9 .8 .6 .4 .1],1); n = [zeros(1,60) n]; for i = 1:10, Zm(i,:) = n + randn(1,160) + (rand(1).5) * (1:160);,end n = noisevector(100,[1 .9 .8 .6 .4 .1],1); n = [zeros(1,60) n]; for i = 11:20, Zm(i,:) = n + randn(1,160) + (rand(1).5) * (1:160);,end varZm = ones(size(Zm)); [p,tm,Zcor,sterr,Zpop,tvals,sb,stats] = hewma2(Zm, varZm,.2,1,0,[ones(10,1); 1*ones(10,1)]);

hewma_utility.
hewma2_plot
(Zpop, mu, cp, cp_ind, ooc_indices, maxtime, tthresh, tt, tm, q, Wm, Zm, sterr, varargin)¶ Usage: hewma2_plot(Zpop,mu,cp,cp_ind,ooc_indices,maxtime,tthresh,tt,tm,q,Wm,Zm,sterr,varargin)
see hewma2.m

hewma_utility.
hewma_extract_voxel
(EXPT, coords)¶ Extracts data for one voxel and runs hewma2 on it.
Usage: function [dat,stats] = hewma_extract_voxel(EXPT,coords)
Uses plot option in hewma2 to create plots.

hewma_utility.
hewma_from_raw_timeseries
(raw_data, varargin)¶ Usage: STATS = hewma_from_raw_timeseries(raw_data, varargin)
Inputs:  obj:
imraw_data, a N subjects x T time points matrix of data
Optional Inputs: For all optional inputs, enter a keyword followed by an input value/argument (this is a standard Matlab format for entering optional arguments) e.g., ‘lam’, .3 to enter a lambda value of .3
Here are the optional inputs and their defaults:
 lam = .2;
ewma smoothing param
 L = 2;
ewma control limit
 noisemodel = ‘AR(2)’;
noise structure type
 base_timepts = 60;
baseline time points to use
 doplot = 1;
plot toggle (1/0)
 dodetrend = 1;
hewma linear detrending toggle (1/0)
 grpcontrast = [];
vector of 1 or 1 values for group assignment for each subject
 samprate = .5;
sampling rate in Hz, 1/TR; TR = 2 by default
Note: see ewma5.m and hewma2.m for more information on these inputs

hewma_utility.
hewma_gui
(Action, varargin)¶ Usage: varargout=hewma_gui(Action,varargin)
To run, type “hewma” at the Matlab prompt

hewma_utility.
hewma_plot_bivariate
(varargin)¶ Visualize a change_point map stored in hewma_cp.img and a runlength map stored in hewma_runlen.img (output from hewma2)
Usage: [cl,cl2] = hewma_plot_bivariate([Method],[optional overlay image])
and classify voxels into groupings based on locations in the bivariate space

hewma_utility.
hewma_plot_coord_btnupfcn
()¶ function for loading and plotting hewma data from a voxel. must have declared globals f,f2,VOL,EXPT
Usage: [dat,stats,mycov] = hewma_plot_coord_btnupfcn
see hewma_timeseries_plot, the shell function.

hewma_utility.
hewma_plot_cpmap
(varargin)¶ Visualize a change_point map stored in hewma_cp.img (output from hewma2) and classify voxels into groupings based on CP
Usage: [cl2,classes] = hewma_plot_cpmap

hewma_utility.
hewma_plot_runlen
()¶ Visualize a change_point map stored in hewma_cp.img (output from hewma2) and classify voxels into groupings based on CP
Usage: [cl2,classes] = hewma_plot_runlen

hewma_utility.
hewma_save_timeseries
(varargin)¶ Usage: cl = hewma_save_timeseries([mask to extract from or cl],[k],[[set of:grpmean,grpste,xdim,ydim]])
load hewma_timeseries run this to save data in clusters format
Function: extract timeseries data from a mask (and extent thr k) Gets group avg data for clusters, not individual. For indiv, use hewma_extract_voxel.m
Last args contain the data for the group for each voxel. If last args are not entered, attempts to load from hewma_timeseries.mat defaults

hewma_utility.
linear_detrending
(Zm)¶ Usage: Zdt = linear_detrending(Zm)
Input:  Zm:
nsub x T matrix;
Output:  Zdt:
linearly detrended version of Zm (baseline retained)

hewma_utility.
timeseries_btwngroups_plot
(dat, cov, varargin)¶ Usage: h = timeseries_btwngroups_plot(dat,cov,[baseperiod],[dedetrend],[x],[legend text])
Inputs:  imdat:
subjects x time matrix of estimates
 baseperiod:
integer; removes mean of 1:baseperiod for each subject
 cov:
subjects x 1 contrast vector (individual/group differences)
 dodetrend:
linear detrending of each subject’s estimates
 legend text:
{‘name1’ ‘name2’ ...}
Output:  h:
line handles

hewma_utility.
timeseries_mc_pvalue
(varZm, lambda, Wm, sesq, df, tm)¶ Uses Monte Carlo simulation on a timeeseries to get the null hypothesis max tvalue over time and establish an appropriate statistical threshold
Usage: [Zcor,p,tthresh,q,C] = timeseries_mc_pvalue(varZm,lambda,Wm,sesq,df,tm)
Inputs:  varZm:
within subjects variances, subj x time
 lambda:
smoothing parameter in EWMA
 Wm:
individual case (subject) weights
 sesq:
squared standard error between subjects (variance of group error estimate)
 df:
degrees of freedom between subjects (est.)
 tm:
max t stat for group over time

hewma_utility.
wb_hewma_shell
(EXPT, varargin)¶ Usage: EXPT = wb_hewma_shell(EXPT,[start slice or vector of slices],[dools],[mask])
Run EWMA first: wb_multisubject_ewma.
 Fields in EXPT needed:
 subdir
 im_files
 FILES.ewma_z
 FILES.ewma_var
 [cov]
 [mask]

hewma_utility.
weighted_reg
(Y, varargin)¶ Calculate weighted average using weighted linear least squares See examples below for usage
Model: Y_i = 1*Ypop + noise
Inputs:  Y:
data matrix (nsub x T)
 w:
weights
 varY:
variance of data at each time point (nsub x T) + var between
Outputs:  Ymean:
weighted mean of each column of Y
 dfe:
error degrees of freedom, adjusted for inequality of variance (Sattherwaite) and pooled across data columns
Extended output in stats structure:
 stats.t:
 tvalues for weighted ttest
 stats.p:
 2tailed pvalues for weighted ttest
 r:
 weighted correlation coeff across columns of Y
 xy:
 weighted covariance matrix
 v:
 weighted variance estimates for each column of Y
 sqrt(v) is the standard error of the mean (or grp difference)
 stats.fits:
 fits for each group (Ymean by group), low contrast weight group then high Fastest if no stats are asked for.
Computation time: For FULL stats report
 Triples from 500 > 1000 columns of Y, continues to increase
For mean/dfe only, fast for full dataset (many columns of Y)
Examples: % Basic multivariate stats for 1000 columns of dat, no weighting % Multivariate covariances are meaningful if cols of Y are organized, e.g., timeseries [means,stats] = weighted_reg(dat(:,1:1000)); % The same, but return univariate stats only (good for large Y) [means,stats] = weighted_reg(dat,'uni');

hewma_utility.
weighted_reg_old2
(y, w, varz)¶ Calculate weighted average using weighted linear least squares
Model: z_i = 1*zpop + noise
Inputs:  Y:
data matrix (nsub x T)
 w:
weights
 varz:
variance of data at each time point (nsub x T)
Outputs:  r:
weighted correlation coeff across columns of y
 xy:
weighted covariance matrix
 v:
weighted variance estimates for each column of y
 zp:
weighted mean of each column of y

hewma_utility.
weighted_reg_oldglmfit_old
(Y, varargin)¶ Calculate weighted average using weighted linear least squares See examples below for usage
Model: Y_i = 1*Ypop + noise
Inputs:  Y:
data matrix (nsub x T)
 w:
weights
 varY:
variance of data at each time point (nsub x T) + var between
Outputs:  Ymean:
weighted mean of each column of Y
 dfe:
error degrees of freedom, adjusted for inequality of variance (Sattherwaite) and pooled across data columns
Extended output in stats structure:
 stats.t:
 tvalues for weighted ttest
 stats.p:
 2tailed pvalues for weighted ttest
 r:
 weighted correlation coeff across columns of Y
 xy:
 weighted covariance matrix
 v:
 weighted variance estimates for each column of Y
 sqrt(v) is the standard error of the mean (or grp difference)
 stats.fits:
 fits for each group (Ymean by group), low contrast weight group then high Fastest if no stats are asked for.
Computation time: For FULL stats report
 Triples from 500 > 1000 columns of Y, continues to increase
For mean/dfe only, fast for full dataset (many columns of Y)
Examples: % Basic multivariate stats for 1000 columns of dat, no weighting % Multivariate covariances are meaningful if cols of Y are organized, e.g., timeseries [means,stats] = weighted_reg(dat(:,1:1000)); % The same, but return univariate stats only (good for large Y) [means,stats] = weighted_reg(dat,'uni');

hewma_utility.
whole_brain_ewma
(P, DX, TR, HP, nruns, numframes, varargin)¶ Singlesubject timeseries extraction and model fitting saves filtered images f* and fullmodel betas (model fits)
Usage: function Pw = whole_brain_ewma(P,DX,TR,HP,nruns,numframes,[doplot],[mask],[smoothlen],[startslice])
Inputs:  P:
list of image names, raw functionals or beta images (see “type”
below)
 DX:
model matrix of effects to REMOVE before EWMA, see, e.g., for FIR tor_make_deconv_mtx3.m
 TR:
repetition time of your study (sampling rate)
 HP:
highpass filter cutoff in seconds to apply (SPM style)
 nruns:
 number of sessions (intercepts) OR num. of images in each sess,
e.g., [169 169 172]
 numframes:
 number of beta images per event type, e.g., [20 20 20] for FIR
model
 [doplot]:
optional graphics
 [mask]:
optional name of mask image to limit processing to brain, or []
 [smoothlen]:
 exponential smoothing filter length for timeseries and
betas; influence is 0 after smoothlen seconds; default:**
6
 [startslice]:
slice to start at, default = 1
 [type]:
optional type of analysis to run. Options: ‘full’ Everything, from filtering to height/time/width, enter
raw image names and model matrix DX
 ‘data’ Filter data only and save images in f*img
Enter raw image names and empty model matrix []
 ‘htw’ Smooths beta series and computes height/time/width only
 Enter beta images from FIR model within condition,
e.g., beta1_event1 beta2_event1 ... beta1_event2 b2_e2 ...
One possibility is to use images from SPM2 at this stage.
For a shell to run this function, see whole_brain_fir.m
The analysis sequence: Run whole_brain_fir, which mainly just calls whole_brain_filter whole_brain_filter gives you:
 trimmed, filtered images, saved in f*img
these can be passed to SPM2, e.g., if desired
 extraction of beta images for FIR model, saved in dx_beta*img
in individual subject folders; also smooths betas if desired
 calculation of height, delay, and width for each FIR extracted
saved on images in individual subject folders.
After running this, you’ll need to collect image names for use in random effects analyses, and most likely create contrasts across conditions for differences in height, delay, and width.
to do this, first go to main model directory, with subject subfolders to save a list of height/delay/width images:
EXPT = get_htw_image_names(EXPT)
to create contrasts across those images and save in EXPT.SNPM for rfx analysis:
EXPT = make_htw_contrast_images(EXPT);
Now you can run robust regression across the images in EXPT.SNPM. The robust reg uses image names in EXPT.SNPM.P, so you may have to save images from another field (e.g., EXPT.SNPM.heightP) in the .P field. you may also want to test individual contrasts against zero, in which case you can use EXPT.NLCON.height images, for example (and others in NLCON) instead.
EXPT = robfit(EXPT);
Explanations of some more variables
 vb:
 [optional] verbose output level: 0 none, 1 some, 2 lots
 mask:
 [optional] mask 3D volume to apply before extracting
 P:
 image file names (str matrix)
 S:
 filtering matrix (e.g., highpass)
 DX:
 full model to fit, unfiltered
 vb:
 [optional] verbose output level: 0 none, 1 some, 2 lots
 mask:
 [optional] mask 3D volume to apply before extracting
 nsess:
 number of sessions (intercepts): assumes last nsess columns of DX are run intercepts to be removed before trimming
 dims:
 dimensions of image files in data
 cols:
 no. of columns of DX, also no. of beta images to write
 SDX:
 smoothed (filtered) full model to fit
 PSDX:
 pseudoinverse of filtered full model
 PSDXS:
 PSDX * S, ready to multiply with data y for pinv(SX) * Sy
 betas:
 4D array of x,y,z,column
 ntrimmed:
 number of outliers trimmed from timeseries at each voxel
 Pw:
 string matrix of output file names
Example: Pw = whole_brain_filter(d,c.model(1:166,:),2,120,5,c.numframes,1,10);

hewma_utility.
zero_crossing
(M, T, XX, ZIU, ZIL, Z, mu)¶ Estimate out of control points and changepoint using zerocrossing method.
Usage: [CP2,CNTmat,TOTmat,LENmat] = zero_crossing(M,T,XX,ZIU,ZIL,Z,mu)
Used in ewma5.m See ewma5 for description of variables.
Image_computation_tools¶

Image_computation_tools.
apply_derivative_boost
(varargin)¶ Allows for recalculation of amplitude images from the fitted responses for each trial type. Necessary for calculating group statistics when using multiple basis functions
Usage: function apply_derivative_boost(varargin)
NOTES: DB estimation only works for 2 specific basis sets: timeonly, with 2 parameters (canonical + time derivative) timedispersion,’ with 3 parameters (canonical hrf + temporal and spatial dispersion) This function loads the SPM.mat file in the current directory and uses the basis set specified in the loaded SPM structure.
Optional Inputs:  ‘amplitudes’
will only create amping images (combination of betas across basis functions)
 ‘contrasts’
assumes that amping images are already created; will only create contrast images
 ‘all’
will run both the amplitudes and contrasts sections
 In addition, ‘amplitudes’ now has two separate parts:
 The first uses Vince Calhoun’s derivative boost (Calhoun, 2004) to
estimate amplitudes. NOTE: We have not worked out the scaling yet, so I’m not sure this is working right To turn this OFF, enter ‘nodb’ as an optional argument
The second way uses our HTW code to estimate height, time to peak, width, and area under the curve (see Lindquist & Wager 2007 for simulations using a version of this code). It requires SCANlab specific functions, in SCN_Core_Support (unlike the deriv. boost). To turn this OFF, enter ‘nohtw’ as an optional argument
 ‘startend’
followed by starting and ending values in seconds for amplitude estimation window (for HTW estimation only). If you do not enter this, it will show you a plot and ask you to pick these values. If you enter them here as inputs, you can skip the interactive step and loop over subjects.
 ‘condition_numbers’
followed by which index numbers in your list should be used to calculate h, t, w from. You should use this if you are entering regressors of no interest, besides the intercepts.
Important for Contrasts: disp(‘Using contrasts entered as Fcontrasts. Assuming the first contrast vector in each Fcontrast ‘
disp(‘is a contrast of interest across the CANONICAL basis function regressors.’)
Examples: % RUN THIS IN COMMAND WINDOW TO BATCH subj = dir('06*') for i = 1:length(subj), cd(subj(i).name), apply_derivative_boost, cd('..'); end % ANOTHER BATCH EXAMPLE: d = dir('remi*'); d = d(cat(2, d.isdir)); [mydirs{1:length(d)}] = deal(d.name) for i = 1:length(mydirs), cd(mydirs{i}), apply_derivative_boost('all', 'nodb', 'startend', [4 15]), cd('..'); end %An example for an eventrelated design, specifying condition numbers to get HTW from: apply_derivative_boost('all', 'nodb', 'contrasts', 'condition_numbers', 1:14, 'startend', [4 10]); % CALCULATE CONTRASTS ONLY ON ALREADYESTIMATED HTW IMAGES apply_derivative_boost('contrasts','condition_numbers',1:14);

Image_computation_tools.
canlab_create_wm_ventricle_masks
(wm_mask, gm_mask, varargin)¶ This function saves white matter and ventricle masks.
Usage: function canlab_create_wm_ventricle_masks(wm_mask, gm_mask)
Inputs:  wm_mask:
white matter structural image file
wm_mask = filenames('Structural/SPGR/wc2*.nii', 'char', 'absolute');
 gm_mask:
gray matter structural image file
gm_mask = filenames('Structural/SPGR/wc1*.nii', 'char', 'absolute');
Optional: You can specify how liberal or conservative to be in estimating white matter and ventricles. 1 is most conservative and will yield no ventricles, and 0 is very liberal. The default of wm_thr is .9, the default of vent_thr is .9. e.g)
 ‘wm_thr’, .99
 ‘vent_thr’, .95
Output:  “white_matter.img” and “ventricles.img”:
in the same folder of the input structural files

Image_computation_tools.
fisherp
(p, varargin)¶ Usage: function [z,p,sig,pt] = fisherp(p,[alph])
Inputs:  p:
values in 4D array
1st 3 dims are within images, dim4 = image
Optional: alpha value for thresholding
Outputs:  z:
Fisher’s combined test statistic, compare to normal
 p:
pvalues for combined test
 sig:
signficance 1 / 0 binary mask, p < .05 (or alph) FDRcorr
 pt:
pvalue threshold for FDR corrected significance at alph
Described in: Lazar, N. A., Luna, B., Sweeney, J. A., & Eddy, W. F. (2002). Combining brains: a survey of methods for statistical pooling of information. Neuroimage, 16(2), 538550.
Stouffer, S. A., Suchman, E. A., DeVinney, L. C., Star, S. A., and Williams, R. M. 1949. The American Soldier: Vol. I. Adjustment During Army Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Threshold is determined with False Discovery Rate (Benjamini & Hochberg, 1995)

Image_computation_tools.
get_mask_vol
(Pf, Pm)¶ Returns 3D volume of binary mask values, in the space of the functional image Pf.
Usage: function mask = get_mask_vol(Pf,Pm)
Inputs:  Pf:
filename of functional image
 Pm:
filename of mask image (should be 1’s and 0’s)

Image_computation_tools.
image_eval_function
(imageNames, fhandle, varargin)¶ Evaluate any function, defined by the function handle fhandle, on each inmask voxel for a set of images.
Usage: varargout = image_eval_function(imgnames, fhandle, ['mask', mask], ['preprochandle', preprochandle], varargin)
Other Optional args: ‘outimagelabels’ , ‘connames’ varargout = image_eval_function(Y, fhandle, varargin)
evaluate fhandle on paired columns of X and Y
Note: You must call image_eval_function with outputs, one output for each output you’re requesting from the voxellevel function. Eg:
[t, df, betaorcontrast, Phi, sigma, stebeta, F, pvals] = ... image_eval_function(imgs, fhandle, 'mask', maskimg, 'outimagelabels' , names);
Inputs:  fhandle:
is a function handle:
fhandle = @(variable inputs) fit_gls(variable_input, fixed_inputs); fhandle = @(y) fit_gls(y, X, c, p, PX);
 ‘outimagelabels’:
should be followed by a set of image names, one name per output of fhandle per element. e.g., outnames{j}{i} is the output image for output j and element (input image) i. elements may be images for each subject, if a set of one image per subject is entered, or something else depending on the nature of input imgs.
Note: do not include suffixes: no .img
Examples: Generalized least squares fitting on 100 Yvariables, same X
% Get image list imgs = filenames('trial_height*img', 'char') imgs = sort_image_filenames(imgs) % Get prestored design matrix X = eventdesign{3}; preprochandle = @(y) trimts(y, 3, []);
Generate an image with the number of inanalysis (valid) subjects in each voxel
EXPT.SNPM.P{2} is a list of subjectlevel contrast images.
fhan = @(y) sum(abs(y) > 0 & ~isnan(y)); y = image_eval_function(EXPT.SNPM.P{2}, fhan, 'mask', EXPT.mask, 'outimagelabels', {{'sum_valid_antic.img'}}); y = rand(100, 100); X = y + rand(100, 1); X(:,end+1) = 1; c = [1 0]'; p = 2; PX = pinv(X); fhandle = @(y) fit_gls(y, X, c, p, PX); [t, df, beta, Phi, sigma, stebeta, F] = fhandle(y);
setup inputs

Image_computation_tools.
image_eval_function_multisubj
(imageNames, fhandle, varargin)¶ Evaluate any function, defined by the function handle fhandle, on each inmask voxel for a set of images. imageNames is a cell array of N cells, each containing images for one replication (i.e., subject)
Usage: image_eval_function_multisubj(imgnames,fhandle,['mask',mask],['preprochandle',preprochandle],['outnames',outimagelabels],varargin)
other optional args: ‘outimagelabels’ , ‘connames’
At each voxel, a cell array is formed, one cell per subject. This would correspond to a matrix is formed of t x N, where t is time and N is replication (subject) but cells can deal with unequal data vector lengths for each subject. The anonymous function in fhandle should operate on data from each cell (subject).
varargout = image_eval_function(Y,fhandle,varargin)
evaluate fhandle on paired columns of X and Y
fhandle is a function handle:
fhandle = @(variable inputs) fit_gls(variable_input,fixed_inputs); fhandle = @(y) fit_gls(y,X,c,p,PX);
specify the outputs by adding them as output image names. The number of outputs returned is determined by the number of named images in the list entered following the ‘outnames’ keyword.
Note on output images: You specify the names of the output images One image will be written per output of fhandle. The images will have one volume per element of the output variable. If you are returning an output with one value per subject, for example, then a single image will be written with one volume in it per subject.
preprochandle is a function handle. it encapsulates the preprocessing function. the function should work on each cell (subject) of a t x N cell array of time courses for each subject, where each cell contains a t x v matrix of data from a slice. The preproc function should thus be able to handle a whole slice as input. the function can itself be a cell array with multiple handles in different cells
Examples: Generalized least squares fitting on 100 Yvariables, same X % Get image list imgs = filenames('trial_height*img','char') imgs = sort_image_filenames(imgs) % Get prestored design matrix X = eventdesign{3}; preprochandle = @(y) trimts(y,3,[]); y = rand(100,100); X = y + rand(100,1); X(:,end+1) = 1; c = [1 0]'; p = 2; PX = pinv(X); fhandle = @(y) fit_gls(y,X,c,p,PX); [t, df, beta, Phi, sigma,stebeta, F] = fhandle(y);

Image_computation_tools.
image_histogram1d
(varargin)¶ Visualize a change_point map stored in hewma_cp.img (output from hewma2) and classify voxels into groupings based on CP
Usage: [cl2,classes] = image_histogram1d([image name],[overlay])

Image_computation_tools.
mask_create_from_image_set
(imgs, outname, atleastN, varargin)¶ Take a set of images and create a mask of voxels in which at least N subjects have valid (not exactly zero, non NaN) data.
Usage: mask = mask_create_from_image_set(imgs, outname, atleastN, ['sum'])
This makes a useful results mask for a set of images, i.e., in a group analysis.
Optional: ‘sum’ input writes the sum image instead of the mask image, so that the values in the image reflect the number of input images with valid values.
compatible with SPM5 and above only!
Examples: mask_create_from_image_set(EXPT.SNPM.P{1}, 'mask_all_valid.img'); imgs = filenames('vascular_mask_*img'); mask_create_from_image_set(imgs, 'vascular_group_sum.img', 6, 'sum');

Image_computation_tools.
mask_create_results_mask
(mask, study_img, kern_size, varargin)¶ Takes a mask image name (mask) smooths it by smooth_mm (optional; enter 0 for kern_size to avoid this) Resamples it to study image dimensions (study_img) writes output image
Usage: [cl_out, out_name] = mask_create_results_mask(mask, study_img, kern_size, [opt: expression to evaluate on mask])
Optional: Applies an expression to be evaluated to the image, in spm_imcalc format, e.g., ‘i1 < .05’ (uses spm_imcalc_ui.m)
Outputs: Returns mask_clusters (mask_cl) and mask name (out_name) Examples: mask = which('spm2_amy.img') study_img = '/Users/tor/Documents/Tor_Documents/PublishedProjects/inpress_2007_Emotion_handbook_2006/an_metaFWE_rad10/exp_vs_percept/Activation_FWE_all.img'; kern_size = 3; cl_out = mask_create_results_mask(mask, study_img, kern_size); cluster_orthviews(cl_out, {[0 1 0]}, 'add', 'handle', 1); [cl_out, out_name] = mask_create_results_mask('XY_total_pvals.img', 'XY_total_pvals.img', 0, 'i1 < .05 & i1 > eps'); spm_image('init', 'XY_total_pvals.img'); cluster_orthviews(cl_out, {[1 0 0]}, 'trans', 'add');

Image_computation_tools.
mask_fisher
(clsize, outname, k, Pimg, Timg)¶ This function performs combination of pvalues across images using the Fisher method (see refs below). Voxels are thresholded with FDR, and can be positive and negative at once if both positive and negative sig effects exist in input images. FDR correction is based on 2tailed pvalues  so this function assumes 2tailed pvalues!! (robfit does this, glmfit and robustfit both return 2tailed pvalues as well.)
Usage: function [clpos,clneg] = mask_fisher(clsize,outname,k,Pimg,Timg)
Assumes input pvalues are 1tailed, and divides by two to get 2tailed pvalue inputs!!
Inputs:  Pimg:
string mtx of pvalue image names
Pimg=get_filename2('rob*\*_p_*0002.img'); Timg = get_filename2('rob*\*_tmap_0002.img')
 Timg:
tvalue img names, used to ensure signs are same across all tests
 k:
num voxels/num comparisons **NOT USED NOW  FDR USED INSTEAD if empty, uses # of nonzero, nonNaN values in images
empty i1 prompts for graphic selection of filenames extra arguments are more file names for 3  nway intersection empty outname prompts for entry of output img file name
Described in: Lazar, N. A., Luna, B., Sweeney, J. A., & Eddy, W. F. (2002). Combining brains: a survey of methods for statistical pooling of information. Neuroimage, 16(2), 538550.
Stouffer, S. A., Suchman, E. A., DeVinney, L. C., Star, S. A., and Williams, R. M. 1949. The American Soldier: Vol. I. Adjustment During Army Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Image_computation_tools.
mask_image
(img, mask, outname, varargin)¶ Usage: masked_dat = mask_image(img, mask, outname, ['reverse'])
Mask an image file (img) with a mask (mask), and save in outname. zero and NaN values are considered invalid values, and so voxels with these values are considered “excluded”
Optional Inputs:  ‘minmask’:
mask values less than next argument are excluded
 ‘maxmask’:
mask values greater than next argument are excluded
 ‘minimg’:
img values less than next argument are excluded
 ‘maximg’:
img values greater than next argument are excluded
 ‘abs’:
impose min/max thresholds based on absolute values
 ‘reverse’:
make “reverse mask,” including only previously excluded areas (values of zero or NaN)
Note: applies to mask, not img values So values with 0 in img will always be 0, whether
standard or “reverse” mask is used.
 ‘binary’:
make the image values binary (i.e., create a new mask)
This function can handle images of different dimensions. The output image will use the dimensions of img.
Examples: % Create an image with nonzero numbers only where pvalues in an image are greater than .05 img = 'XM_pvals.img' mask = 'XM_pvals.img'; maxmask = .05 outname = 'notX_p05.img'; mask_image(img, mask, outname, 'reverse', 'maxmask', maxmask); spm_image('init', outname); mask_image(my_mean_image, 'functional_mask.img', ... 'functional_mask.img', 'minimg', cutoff, 'abs'); mask_image('n15_avgpet.img',EXPT.mask,'n15_avgpet_brain.img');

Image_computation_tools.
mask_intersection
(clsize, outname, i1, i2, varargin)¶ empty i1 prompts for graphic selection of filenames extra arguments are more file names for 3  nway intersection empty outname prompts for entry of output img file name
Usage: function [vol,V,XYZ,clusters,Q] = mask_intersection(clsize,outname,i1,i2,varargin)

Image_computation_tools.
mask_intersection2
(clsize, outname, P, calcstr)¶ empty P prompts for graphic selection of filenames extra arguments are more file names for 3  nway intersection empty outname prompts for entry of output img file name
Usage: function [clusters,vol,V,XYZ,Q] = mask_intersection2(clsize,outname,P,calcstr)
this version allows contrasts last argument, calcstr, is the string to evaluate in imcalc
e.g., intersection of 4 images:
'i1 & i2 & i3 & i4 & ~(isnan(i1)  isnan(i2)  isnan(i3)  isnan(i4))'
e.g.,
'i1 & i2 & ~i3 & ~i4 & ~(isnan(i1)  isnan(i2)) = intersection of i1 and i2 and not i3 and not i4
or
'i1 & i2 & isnan(i3) & isnan(i4) & ~(isnan(i1)  isnan(i2))' ... for nan masked images cl = mask_intersection2(5,'intersect001.img',P,'i1 & i2 & i3 & i4 & ~(isnan(i1)  isnan(i2)  isnan(i3)  isnan(i4))');

Image_computation_tools.
mask_stouffer
(clsize, outname, k, Pimg, Timg)¶ This function performs combination of pvalues across images using the Stouffer method (see refs below).
Usage: function [vol,V,XYZ,clusters,Q] = mask_stouffer(clsize,outname,k,Pimg,Timg)
Inputs:  Pimg:
string mtx of pvalue image names
 Timg:
tvalue img names, used to ensure signs are same across all tests
 k:
num voxels/num comparisons if empty, uses # of nonzero, nonNaN values in images
empty i1 prompts for graphic selection of filenames extra arguments are more file names for 3  nway intersection empty outname prompts for entry of output img file name
Described in: Lazar, N. A., Luna, B., Sweeney, J. A., & Eddy, W. F. (2002). Combining brains: a survey of methods for statistical pooling of information. Neuroimage, 16(2), 538550.
Stouffer, S. A., Suchman, E. A., DeVinney, L. C., Star, S. A., and Williams, R. M. 1949. The American Soldier: Vol. I. Adjustment During Army Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Examples: Pimg=get_filename2('rob*\*_p_*0002.img'); Timg = get_filename2('rob*\*_tmap_0002.img')

Image_computation_tools.
mask_union
(clsize, outname, i1, i2, varargin)¶ empty i1 prompts for graphic selection of filenames extra arguments are more file names for 3  nway intersection empty outname prompts for entry of output img file name
Usage: function [vol,V,XYZ,clusters,Q] = mask_union(clsize,outname,i1,i2,varargin)

Image_computation_tools.
percent_sig_image
(imgs, baseimg, outname)¶ Creates a percent signal change image saved in outname by dividing each image by baseimg
Usage: function Vo = percent_sig_image(imgs, baseimg, outname)

Image_computation_tools.
reslice_imgs
(sampleTo, resliceThis, varargin)¶ arguments are file names of .img files if empty, select from GUI% :Usage:
function [P, reslicedImgs] = reslice_imgs(sampleTo, resliceThis, [domask], [overwrite])
if domask, recalculates a 1 or 0 mask for each image file in resliceThis if overwrite, overwrite the original instead of prepending an ‘r’
Examples: % Reslice a mask image into the space of some functional images, and move to the current directory [tmp, maskname] = reslice_imgs(image_names(1, :), maskname, 1); eval(['!mv ' maskname ' ./']) eval(['!mv ' maskname(1:end4) '.hdr ./'])

Image_computation_tools.
reverse_mask
(inname, outname)¶ Changes 1 and greater’s to 0’s in an .img file, and vice versa NaNs are still NaNs.
Usage: reverse_mask(inname,outname)

Image_computation_tools.
scn_write_plane
(filenames_or_V, dat, wh_slice, varargin)¶ Images can be 3D or 4D (4D is possible with SPM2+ using ,xx indexing, or SPM5+).
Usage: V = scn_write_plane(filenames_or_V, dat, wh_slice, [exampleV])
Inputs:  ofilenames_or_V:
is string matrix or cell array of names, or structures created with spm_vol(names)
 dat:
is 3D array of data, vox x vox x slices, with data on 3rd dim being written to separate image files
 wh_slice:
slice number (voxel space)
 exampleV:
is optional, but required if filenames are passed in.
Write a plane, given filenames or spm_vol structures and 4D data with the slice to write.
SPM2/5 compatible, and creates image if necessary from file name and example V structure.
P = char({'one.img', 'two.img', 'three.img'}) dat = randn(64, 64, 3); Vout = scn_write_plane(P, dat, wh_slice, V) spm_image('init', Vout(1).fname);
Notes on SPM5 and why we need to do what we do the way we do it: Write data...in SPM5, by accessing file_array object in V.private directly (with spm_write_plane. spm_write_vol first creates NIFTI obj/file array and then uses spm_write_plane.)
The file_array object points to data in the actual file, so when values are assigned to the array object, they are written directly in the file. These values depend on the offset and slope values (spm scaling factors!) in V.private.dat as well, so care must be taken to assign data to a file_array object with the correct scaling factors. This is why it is better to load the structure one wants to write to with spm_vol first, so that the name in V.private.dat.fname will be correct, and V.private.dat.scl_slope and ...inter will be correct as well. Vout = spm_vol(V(i)); % loads correct .private info from V.fname
in SPM5, this simply assigns data in Vout.private.dat in SPM2, it does something different, but should be compatible, since spm_vol was used above...
spm_write_plane(Vout, fsl(:, :, i), slicei); if isfield(V, 'dt'), Vout.dt = V.dt; end % SPM5 only if isfield(V, 'n'), Vout.n = V.n; end % SPM5 only Vout = spm_create_vol(Vout); else Vout = spm_vol(V(i).fname); end spm_write_plane(Vout, fsl(:, :, i), slicei);

Image_computation_tools.
tor_spm_mean_ui
(P, varargin)¶ Promts for a series of images and averages them
Usage: tor_spm_mean_ui(Pinputnames,[outputname])
Image_space_tools¶

Image_space_tools.
check_spm_mat
(mat1, mat2, clusters)¶ mat1 is from clusters, mat2 is functional (imgs to extract)
Usage: check_spm_mat(mat1,mat2,clusters)

Image_space_tools.
check_spm_matfiles
(P)¶ Check a list of SPMstyle images to see if they all have the same space, dims.
Usage: [anybad] = check_spm_matfiles(P)

Image_space_tools.
img2voxel
(P, varargin)¶ Given a mask or filtered image file name, returns XYZ coordinates in voxels and mm of nonzero, nonNaN voxels
and img values at these coordinates in val

Image_space_tools.
mask2voxel
(mask)¶ convert from 3D mask to voxel list in canonical orientation
Usage: function voxels = mask2voxel(mask)
[i j k] = row, column, slice
[x y z] in brain if brain is in analyze format
(x is rows, y is columns, z is slices)

Image_space_tools.
mni2tal
(inpoints)¶ Converts coordinates from MNI brain to best guess for equivalent Talairach coordinates
Usage: outpoints = mni2tal(inpoints)
Where inpoints is N by 3 or 3 by N matrix of coordinates (N being the number of points)
Output:  outpoints:
is the coordinate matrix with Talairach points

Image_space_tools.
scn_map_image
(loadImg, sampleTo, varargin)¶ This function takes an image name in loadImg and loads the data, resampling to the space defined in the image sampleTo. The resampled image will retain the data type of the input image.
Usage: [imgData, volInfo_mapto] = scn_map_image(loadImg, sampleTo, varargin)
Optional Inputs:  ‘write’:
followed by name of resampled image to write
Compatible with SPM5/8.
 Input images can have the following formats:
 String with name of image file (.img or .nii)
 spm_volstyle V struct (see spm_vol)
 volInfo struct (see iimg_read_img)
 fmri_mask_image object (see fmri_mask_image)
Examples: img = scn_map_image(EXPT.mask, EXPT.SNPM.P{1}(1,:), 'write', 'resliced_mask.img');

Image_space_tools.
scn_resample_voxel_size
(loadImg, voxsize, varargin)¶ This function takes an image name in loadImg and loads the data, resampling to the space defined in the image sampleTo.
Usage: [imgData, volInfo_mapto] = scn_resample_voxel_size(loadImg, voxsize, varargin)
take volInfo and fmri_mask_image inputs as well as image file names
Optional Inputs:  ‘write’:
followed by name of resampled image to write
Compatible with SPM5/8.
 Input images can have the following formats:
 String with name of image file (.img or .nii)
 spm_volstyle V struct (see spm_vol)
 volInfo struct (see iimg_read_img)
 fmri_mask_image object (see fmri_mask_image)
Examples: % Reslice standard brain mask to 3 x 3 x 3 voxels. img = which('brainmask.nii'); [dat, Vto] = scn_resample_voxel_size(img, [3 3 3], 'write', 'test.img'); spm_image('init', 'test.img'); spm_check_registration(char(img, 'test.img'));

Image_space_tools.
tal2mni
(inpoints)¶ Converts coordinates to MNI brain best guess from Talairach coordinates
Usage: outpoints = tal2mni(inpoints)
Where inpoints is N by 3 or 3 by N matrix of coordinates (N being the number of points)
Output:  outpoints:
is the coordinate matrix with MNI points

Image_space_tools.
tal2vox
(tal, VOL)¶ converts from talairach coordinate to voxel coordinate based on variables from SPM.M (passed here for faster operation)
Example: foo = tal2vox([30 28 30], VOL)

Image_space_tools.
transform_coordinates
(CLU, mat)¶ Transforms XYZ voxel coordinates in CLU (clusters or CLU) to new voxel coordinates, given mm coordinates in CLU and a mat file describing the transformation, as in SPM99
Usage: CLU = transform_coordinates(CLU,mat)
This preserves the order of the voxels, but is slower and gives UNIQUE XYZ voxels given XYZmm. see mm2voxel.m

Image_space_tools.
voxel2mask
(voxels, maskdims)¶ Usage: function mask = voxel2mask(voxels, x y z mask dimensions)
Voxels: 3 column vectors
[i j k] = row, column, slice
[x y z] in brain if brain is in analyze format
(x is rows, y is columns, z is slices)

Image_space_tools.
voxel2mm
(XYZ, m)¶ Usage: function XYZmm = voxel2mm(XYZ,m)
Inputs:  XYZ:
is 3 vector point list (3 rows, n columns)
 m:
is SPM mat  4 x 4 affine transform (what’s stored in the .mat file)
Example: XYZmm = voxel2mm([x y z]',V.mat);
Image_thresholding¶

Image_thresholding.
FDR
(p, q)¶ Usage: pt = FDR(p,q)
Inputs:  p:
vector of pvalues
 q:
False Discovery Rate level
Outputs:  pID:
pvalue threshold based on independence or positive dependence
 pN:
Nonparametric pvalue threshold

Image_thresholding.
cl_ext_3dClustSim
(corrected_p, prim_p, residual_images, mask, voxelsize_mm, ClustSim_dir, varargin)¶ Usage: [cl_ext_ClustSim, fwhm] = cl_ext_3dClustSim(corrected_p, prim_p, residual_images, mask, voxelsize_mm, ClustSim_dir, varargin)
Inputs:  corrected_p:
clusterextent corrected p value
e.g.) if clusterextent corrected p < .05: corrected_p = .05
 prim_p:
primary threshold for height (i.e., clusterdefining threshold)
e.g.) prim_p = [0.01 0.005 0.001];
 residual_images:
residual image names; if you used
cl_ext_make_resid.m, this should be ‘Res4d.nii’.
e.g.) residual_images = filenames(‘Res4d.hdr’, ‘char’, ‘absolute’);
residual_images = filenames(‘Res4d.nii’, ‘char’, ‘absolute’);
 mask:
mask image name (should have header)
e.g.) mask = filenames(‘mask.hdr’, ‘char’, ‘absolute’);
mask = filenames(‘mask.nii’, ‘char’, ‘absolute’);
 voxelsize_mm:
voxel sizes in milimeter. e.g) voxelsize_mm = [2 2 2];
 3dClustSim_dir:
directory where alphasim is installed.
e.g.) 3dClustSim_dir = ‘/Users/clinpsywoo/abin/macosx_10.6_Intel_64’;
If you don’t have 3dClustSim, see http://afni.nimh.nih.gov/pub/dist/HOWTO/howto/ht00_inst/html/index.shtml
Optional Inputs:  ‘iter’:
you can set up the iteration number for Monte Carlo simulation. default is doing 1000 iterations.
 ‘twotail’:
default is onetail  with this option, primary_p/2 will be used for all clsuter extent estimations.
 ‘fwhm’:
you can add fwhm manually
Outputs:  cl_ext_ClustSim:
cl_ext_ClustSim is the cluster size that makes a corrected p value under corrected_p (e.g., 0.05).
 fwhm (x, y, z in voxel):
intrinsic smoothness level estimated by AFNI(3dFWHMx). If you want to convert this into mm, you need to multiply these values by voxel sizes in mm.

Image_thresholding.
cl_ext_make_resid
(con_files, varargin)¶ This function will create residual images (4d) and mask image in a current or assigned directory in order to use them in estimating smoothness (relevant functions: spm_est_smoothness (SPM), 3dFWHMx (AFNI), smoothest (FSL).
Usage: function cl_ext_make_resid(conimgs, varargin)
Inputs:  con_files:
contrast image file names; This could be a cell array or strings. This could be 4d images.
Best: Input a cell string. e.g., for a string matrix:
Use cl_ext_make_resid(cellstr(imgs)); % save residual images
 If you are not providing the absolute paths of the images, you need to
be in the directory that has the image files.
Outputs:  Res4d.nii:
residual images saved by SPM.
 mask.nii:
the mask image that was used.
Options for varargin:  ‘mask’
This option can be used to estimate a cluster size for the correction for multiple comparisons “within the mask”. You can put in a ROI mask or gray matter, whatever. If you don’t specify a mask image, brainmask.nii (default) will be used, but the image has to be in your path.
e.g.)
mask = fullfile(basedir, 'ROI_image.img'); mask = which('scalped_avg152T1_graymatter_smoothed.img'); % limited to gray matter
 ‘outputdir’
With this option, this will save residual and mask images and in the outputdir directory. If you don’t give outputdir, the current directory will be used (default).
This function calls cl_ext_spm_spm.m, which is a modified spm_spm not to delete residual images.

Image_thresholding.
cl_ext_spm_grf
(corrected_p, prim_p, residual_images, mask, varargin)¶ This function is designed to estimate a cluster extent size for the correction for multiple comparisons based on a Gaussian Random Field Theory using SPM toolboxes.
Usage: [cl_ext, fwhm] = cl_ext_spm_grf(corrected_p, prim_p, residual_images, mask, varargin)
Inputs:  corrected_p:
corrected p value
e.g.) clusterextent corrected p < .05: corrected_p = .05
 prim_p:
primary threshold for height (i.e., clusterdefining threshold)
e.g.) prim_p = [0.01 0.005 0.001];
 residual_images:
residual image names; if you used
cl_ext_make_resid.m, this should be ‘Res4d.nii’
 mask:
mask image name
Optional Inputs: ‘doplot’:
 ‘twotail’:
default is onetail  with this option, primary_p/2 will be used for all clsuter extent estimations.
Output:
 cl_ext_spm:
 cl_ext_spm is the cluster size that makes a corrected p value under
corrected_p (e.g., 0.05).
 fwhm (x, y, z in voxels):
 intrinsic smoothness level estimated by SPM (spm_est_smoothness.m)
If you want to convert this into mm, you need to multiply these values by voxel sizes in mm.

Image_thresholding.
cl_ext_spm_spm
(SPM)¶ [Re]ML Estimation of a General Linear Model
Usage: FORMAT [SPM] = spm_spm(SPM)
Required fields of SPM:  xY.VY  nScan x 1 struct array of image handles (see spm_vol)
 Images must have the same orientation, voxel size and data type
 Any scaling should have already been applied via the image handle scalefactors.
 xX  Structure containing design matrix information
Required fields are: xX.X  Design matrix (raw, not temporally smoothed) xX.name  cellstr of parameter names corresponding to columns
of design matrix
Optional fields are: xX.K  cell of sessionspecific structures (see spm_filter)
 Design & data are premultiplied by K (K*Y = K*X*beta + K*e)
 Note that K should not smooth across block boundaries
 defaults to speye(size(xX.X,1))
 xX.W  Optional whitening/weighting matrix used to give
weighted least squares estimates (WLS). If not specified spm_spm will set this to whiten the data and render the OLS estimates maximum likelihood i.e. W*W’ = inv(xVi.V).
 xVi  Structure describing intrinsic temporal nonsphericity
Required fields are: xVi.Vi  array of nonsphericity components
 defaults to {speye(size(xX.X,1))}  i.i.d.
 specifying a cell array of constraints (Qi) These constraints invoke spm_reml to estimate hyperparameters assuming V is constant over voxels. that provide a high precise estimate of xX.V
Optional fields are: xX.V  Optional nonsphericity matrix. Cov(e) = sigma^2*V
If not specified spm_spm will compute this using a 1st pass to identify significant voxels over which to estimate V. A 2nd pass is then used to reestimate the parameters with WLS and save the ML estimates (unless xX.W is already specified).
 xM  Structure containing masking information, or a simple column vector
 of thresholds corresponding to the images in VY [default: Inf]
If a structure, the required fields are: xM.TH  nVar x nScan matrix of analysis thresholds, one per image xM.I  Implicit masking (0=>none, 1 => implicit zero/NaN mask) xM.VM  struct array of explicit mask image handles
 (empty if no explicit masks)
 Explicit mask images are >0 for valid voxels to assess.
 Mask images can have any orientation, voxel size or data type. They are interpolated using nearest neighbour interpolation to the voxel locations of the data Y.
Note that voxels with constant data (i.e. the same value across scans) are also automatically masked out.
 swd  Directory where the output files will be saved [default: pwd]
 If exists, it becomes the current working directory.
In addition, global SPM “defaults” variable is used (see spm_defaults):
 stats.<modality>.UFp  critical Fthreshold for selecting voxels over
 which the nonsphericity is estimated (if required) [default: 0.001]
 stats.maxres  maximum number of residual images for smoothness
 estimation
stats.maxmem  maximum amount of data processed at a time (in bytes)
modality  SPM modality {‘PET’,’FMRI’,’EEG’}
spm_spm is the heart of the SPM package. Given image files and a General Linear Model, it estimates the model parameters, variance hyperparameters, and smoothness of standardised residual fields, writing these out to disk in the current working directory for later interrogation in the results section. (NB: Existing analyses in the current working directory are overwritten). This directory now becomes the working directory for this analysis and all saved images are relative to this directory.
The model is expressed via the design matrix (xX.X). The basic model at each voxel is of the form is Y = X*B + e, for data Y, design matrix X, (unknown) parameters B and residual errors e. The errors are assumed to have a normal distribution.
Sometimes confounds (e.g. drift terms in fMRI) are necessary. These can be specified directly in the design matrix or implicitly, in terms of a residual forming matrix K to give a generalised linear model K*Y = K*X*B + K*e. In fact K can be any matrix (e.g. a convolution matrix).
In some instances i.i.d. assumptions about errors do not hold. For example, with serially correlated (fMRI) data or correlations among the levels of a factor in repeated measures designs. This nonsphericity can be specified in terms of components (SPM.xVi.Vi{i}). If specified these covariance components will then be estimated with ReML (restricted maximum likelihood) hyperparameters. This estimation assumes the same nonsphericity for voxels that exceed the global Fthreshold. The ReML estimates can then be used to whiten the data giving maximum likelihood (ML) or GaussMarkov estimators. This entails a second pass of the data with an augmented model K*W*Y = K*W*X*B + K*W*e where W*W’ = inv(xVi.V). xVi.V is the nonsphericity based on the hyperparameter estimates. W is stored in xX.W and cov(K*W*e) in xX.V. The covariance of the parameter estimates is then xX.Bcov = pinv(K*W*X)*xX.V*pinv(K*W*X)’.
If you do not want ML estimates but want to use ordinary least squares (OLS) then simply set SPM.xX.W to the identity matrix. Any nonsphericity V will still be estimated but will be used to adjust the degrees of freedom of the ensuing statistics using the Satterthwaite approximation (c.f. the GreenhouseGeisser corrections).
If [nonspherical] variance components Vi are not specified xVi.Vi and xVi.V default to the identity matrix (i.e. i.i.d). The parameters are then estimated by OLS. In this instance the OLS and ML estimates are the same.
Note that only a single voxelspecific hyperparameter (i.e. variance component) is estimated, even if V is not i.i.d. This means spm_spm always implements a fixedeffects model. Random effects models can be emulated using a multistage procedure: This entails summarising the data with contrasts such that the fixed effects in a second model on the summary data are those effects of interest (i.e. the population effects). This means contrasts are reentered into spm_spm to make an inference (SPM) at the next level. At this higher hierarchical level the residual variance for the model contains the appropriate variance components from lower levels. See spm_RandFX.man for further details and below.
Under the additional assumption that the standardised error fields are nonstationary standard Gaussian random fields, results from Random field theory can be applied to estimate the significance statistic images (SPM’s) adjusting p values for the multiple tests at all voxels in the search volume. The parameters required for this random field correction are the volume, and Lambda, the covariance matrix of partial derivatives of the standardised error fields, estimated by spm_est_smoothness.
The volume analysed is the intersection of the threshold masks, explicit masks and implicit masks. See spm_spm_ui for further details on masking options.
The output of spm_spm takes the form of an SPM.mat file of the analysis parameters, and ‘float’ flatfile images of the parameter and variance [hyperparameter] estimates. An 8bit zeroone mask image indicating the voxels assessed is also written out, with zero indicating voxels outside tha analysed volume.
The following SPM.fields are set by spm_spm (unless specified)
xVi.V  estimated nonsphericity trace(V) = rank(V) xVi.h  hyperparameters xVi.V = xVi.h(1)*xVi.Vi{1} + ... xVi.Cy  spatially whitened <Y*Y’> (used by ReML to estimate h) xVi.CY  <(Y  <Y>)*(Y  <Y>)’> (used by spm_spm_Bayes)
Vbeta  struct array of beta image handles (relative) VResMS  file struct of ResMS image handle (relative) VM  file struct of Mask image handle (relative)
xX.W  if not specified W*W’ = inv(x.Vi.V) xX.V  V matrix (K*W*Vi*W’*K’) = correlations after K*W is applied xX.xKXs  space structure for K*W*X, the ‘filtered and whitened’
design matrix given as spm_sp(‘Set’,xX.K*xX.W*xX.X)  see spm_sp
xX.pKX  pseudoinverse of K*W*X, computed by spm_sp xX.Bcov  xX.pKX*xX.V*xX.pKX  variancecovariance matrix of
parameter estimates (when multiplied by the voxelspecific hyperparameter ResMS of the parameter estimates (ResSS/xX.trRV = ResMS) )xX.trRV  trace of R*V xX.trRVRV  trace of RVRV xX.erdf  effective residual degrees of freedom (trRV^2/trRVRV) xX.nKX  design matrix (xX.xKXs.X) scaled for display
(see spm_DesMtx(‘sca’,... for details)
xVol.M  4x4 voxel>mm transformation matrix xVol.iM  4x4 mm>voxel transformation matrix xVol.DIM  image dimensions  column vector (in voxels) xVol.XYZ  3 x S vector of inmask voxel coordinates xVol.S  Lebesgue measure or volume (in voxels) xVol.R  vector of resel counts (in resels) xVol.FWHM  Smoothness of components  FWHM, (in voxels)
xCon  Contrast structure (created by spm_FcUtil.m) xCon.name  Name of contrast xCon.STAT  ‘F’, ‘T’ or ‘P’  for F/Tcontrast (‘P’ for PPMs) xCon.c  (F) Contrast weights xCon.X0  Reduced design matrix (spans design space under Ho)
It is in the form of a matrix (spm99b) or the coordinates of this matrix in the orthogonal basis of xX.X defined in spm_sp. xCon.iX0  Indicates how contrast was specified:
 If by columns for reduced design matrix then iX0 contains the column indices. Otherwise, it’s a string containing the spm_FcUtil ‘Set’ action: Usually one of {‘c’,’c+’,’X0’} (Usually this is the input argument F_iX0.)
 xCon.X1o  Remaining design space (orthogonal to X0).
 It is in the form of a matrix (spm99b) or the coordinates of this matrix in the orthogonal basis of xX.X defined in spm_sp.
xCon.eidf  Effective interest degrees of freedom (numerator df) xCon.Vcon  ...for handle of contrast/ESS image (empty at this stage) xCon.Vspm  ...for handle of SPM image (empty at this stage)
The following images are written to file
mask.{img,hdr}  analysis mask image 8bit (uint8) image of zeros & one’s indicating which voxels were included in the analysis. This mask image is the intersection of the explicit, implicit and threshold masks specified in the xM argument. The XYZ matrix contains the voxel coordinates of all voxels in the analysis mask. The mask image is included for reference, but is not explicitly used by the results section.
beta_????.{img,hdr}  parameter images These are 32bit (float32) images of the parameter estimates. The image files are numbered according to the corresponding column of the design matrix. Voxels outside the analysis mask (mask.img) are given value NaN.
ResMS.{img,hdr}  estimated residual variance image This is a 64bit (float64) image of the residual variance estimate. Voxels outside the analysis mask are given value NaN.
RPV.{img,hdr}  estimated resels per voxel image This is a 64bit (float64) image of the RESELs per voxel estimate. Voxels outside the analysis mask are given value 0. These images reflect the nonstationary aspects the spatial autocorrelations.
ResI_????.{img,hdr}  standardised residual (temporary) images These are 64bit (float64) images of standardised residuals. At most maxres images will be saved and used by spm_est_smoothness, after which they will be deleted.
References:
 Christensen R (1996) Plane Answers to Complex Questions
 Springer Verlag
Friston KJ, Holmes AP, Worsley KJ, Poline JB, Frith CD, Frackowiak RSJ (1995) ``Statistical Parametric Maps in Functional Imaging:
 A General Linear Approach’‘
 Human Brain Mapping 2:189210
Worsley KJ, Friston KJ (1995) ``Analysis of fMRI TimeSeries Revisited  Again’‘
NeuroImage 2:173181Copyright (C) 2008 Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging

Image_thresholding.
clusterSizeMask
(sizeThresh, height_mask)¶ Usage: function [mask,numClusters,XYZ] = clusterSizeMask(sizeThresh,height_mask)

Image_thresholding.
threshold_imgs
(dd, u, varargin)¶ Usage: function [P2,P,sigmat,sigmatneg] = threshold_imgs(dd,u,[k],['pos' 'neg' 'both'])
Inputs:  dd:
list of filenames (str matrix)
 u:
height threshold for images
 k:
extent threshold for contiguous voxels
 [str]:
 ‘pos’ ‘neg’ or ‘both’, to values above, below,
 and + threshold
Output  threshold t  generic function
also do: plot rob vs ols benefit by tissue class and olsirls average
Examples: [P2,P,s,sn] = threshold_imgs(p([5 8],:),tinv(1.001,10),0,'both'); compare_filtered_t([],P2(1,:),P2(2,:)) [p2,p1] = threshold_imgs('irlsols_z_0001.img',norminv(.9),0,'both'); % compare_filtered_t([],P2(1,:),P2(2,:),p2) h = image_scatterplot(str2mat(P,p1),'avgvs3'); xlabel('Average OLS and Robust tvalue'), ylabel('Zscore of Robust  OLS difference') s = str2mat('rob_tmap_0002.img','rob_tmap_0003.img'); P = threshold_imgs(s,tinv(1.05,36),[],'pos');P = threshold_imgs(s,tinv(1.05,36),[],'neg');
Index_image_manip_tools¶

Index_image_manip_tools.
flip_endianness
(imgs)¶ Flips fMRI images (swap R/L)
Usage: [Vimgs] = flip_endianness(imgs)
Inputs:  imgs:
Give this a list of fMRI images (paths, char str)
Outputs:  Vimgs:
Your images, flipped
Examples:  ::
 load EXPT %study specific spm design file imgs = EXPT.SNPM.P{1}; [Vimgs] = flip_endianness(imgs)
References: N/A
See also:  spm_vol

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_check_volinfo
(maskInfo, imgInfo)¶ Checks a series of image .mat files and dims against a reference (maskInfo)
Usage: anybad = iimg_check_volinfo(maskInfo,imgInfo)
Inputs:  maskInfo and volInfo :
are spmstyle volume info structures
see spm_vol.m

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_cluster_extent
(dat, volInfo, k)¶ Apply a cluster size threshold to a series of index image data vectors (each img is one column) given volInfo (must be created with iimg_read_img, with extended output)
Usage: [dat,nvox] = iimg_cluster_extent(dat,volInfo,k)
Inputs:  dat:
may be an indexed image of all image values or only those in mask defined by volInfo

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_cluster_index
(dat, xyz, k)¶ Get voxel cluster indices and sizes :Usage:
[clindx,nvox] = iimg_cluster_index(dat,xyz,[k])
Inputs:  xyz:
is 3 x n list of voxel coords, volInfo.xyzlist’
 dat:
is index vector of image values
Returns: cluster index and cluster sizes for nonzero, nonnan voxels
initialize

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_cluster_intersect
(dat1, dat2, volInfo)¶ Prunes two image data vectors (dat1 and dat2) assumed to contain suprathreshold contiguous clusters (“blobs”) by saving only those blobs that have one or more significant (nonzero) elements in both images
Usage: [cl1,cl2,dat1,dat2] = iimg_cluster_intersect(dat1,dat2,volInfo)
Inputs:  volInfo.xyzlist:
must contain xyz coordinates corresponding to dat1 and dat2
 dat1 and dat2:
can be either imagelength or inmask length vectorized images
Try iimg_threshold to create dat vectors from Analyze images (e.g., statistic images)
The outputs cl1 and cl2 are the overlap (intersection) clusters, in the space of dat1 (cl1) and dat2 (cl2). The outputs dat1 and dat2 are the ‘pruned’ intersection data vectors.
prune dat1 with sig values in dat2

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_cluster_prune
(dat, datsig, volInfo)¶ Prunes an image data vector (dat) assumed to contain suprathreshold contiguous clusters (“blobs”) by saving only those blobs that have one or more significant (nonzero) elements in another image, datsig
Usage: [dat_out,clindx,keepit] = iimg_cluster_prune(dat,datsig,volInfo)
One intended use is to define an FWEcorrected significance map in datsig, and report blobs at some lower threshold (in dat) that have at least one corrected voxel.
Try iimg_threshold to create dat vectors from Analyze images (e.g., statistic images)
check data type and reduce to inmask only if necessary

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_clusters2indx
(cl, volInfo)¶ Take a clusters structure and turn it into an indexed image of dims volInfo.dim
Usage: [imgvec,maskvec] = iimg_clusters2indx(cl,volInfo) [imgvec,maskvec] = iimg_clusters2indx(cl,my_image_name)
Outputs:  imgvec:
vector of all image voxels
 maskvec:
vector of inmask voxels
Uses: volInfo.nvox, .wh_inmask, .dim convert image to volinfo struct, if necessary

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_indx2contiguousxyz
(dat, volInfo, remove_mean_flag)¶ Take in index image data vector (inmask values only) and a volume info structure with xyzlist and return a cl structure whose XYZ values list contiguous sets of voxels (“blobs”)
Usage: cl = iimg_indx2contiguousxyz(dat,volInfo,[remove_mean_flag])
If a 3rd arg is entered, means of each blob are subtracted This is to facilitate randomizing blob centers in meta_stochastic_activation_blobs.m

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_intersection
(varargin)¶ Make a mask of the intersection of n image files (pos or neg values) If ‘name’ followed by an image file name is entered, writes output to that image
Usage: [int_dat,mask_vol,outname] = iimg_intersection(name1, name2, etc.) [int_dat,mask_vol,outname] = iimg_intersection(dat1, dat2, etc.)
If special string ‘posneg’ is entered, separates first two images into combinations of pos/neg values in each image. The order returned in columns of int_dat is pospos, posneg, negpos, and negneg
fastest if one output requested.

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_make_sure_indx
(inputarg)¶ Usage: dat = iimg_make_sure_indx(inputarg)
Make sure input is an index list, and convert if not

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_mask
(maskindx, dat, varargin)¶ Masks index image vector or filenames in dat With img vector or filenames in maskindx * Checks dimensions to make sure origins and vox. sizes are same
Usage: [masked_indx, volInfo, masked_vol] = iimg_mask(maskindx,dat,[volInfo], [outname])
Fastest way to mask an image:
[masked_indx_data, volInfo] = iimg_mask(maskindx,dat) % or [masked_indx, xyz, masked_vol] = iimg_mask(mask filename,image filenames)
even slower: reconstruct a 3D volume and return in masked_vol

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_multi_threshold
(inname, varargin)¶ Usage: [cl, dat, cl_extent, dat_extent] = iimg_multi_threshold(inname, varargin)
Multithreshold application and orthview display of blobs
Inputs:  inname:
Either the name of an image file or a data vector
if data, enter volInfo structure separately as below.
Command strings:  ‘prune’:
consider only contiguous blobs for which at least 1 voxel meets the most stringent threshold
 ‘pruneseed’:
followed by a vectorized thresholded activation image
Only those blobs overlapping with at least one ‘seed’ data voxel are saved
Also: the first color (highest threshold) in the output images is assigned to the seed
 ‘add’:
add new blobs to existing orthviews
 ‘p’:
if image is a pvalue image (and thresholds are pvalues)
 ‘thresh’:
followed by a vector of n thresholds, most to least stringent
 ‘size’:
followed by a vector of size thresholds
**‘volInfo’: followed by volInfo struct; needed if inname is data rather
than filenames
 ‘overlay’:
 followed by overlay image (anatomical) filename
 ‘transseed’:
 transparent seed
 ‘hideseed’:
 do not show seed regions on plot
 ‘pos’:
 positive results only
 ‘neg’:
 negative results only
 ‘add’:
 add to existing multithreshold plot
Needs (development): Legend, nice handling of colors, input colors, color maps specified with command words (like ‘red’)
Examples: inname = 'Activation_proportion.img'; [cl, dat] = iimg_multi_threshold(inname, 'prune', 'thresh', [.1 .5 .3], 'size', [1 5 10]); cl2 = iimg_multi_threshold(Pimg(1, :), 'thresh', [.001 .01 .05], 'size', [3 5 10], 'p'); cl2 = iimg_multi_threshold(Pimg(1, :), 'thresh', [.001 .01 .05], 'size', [3 3 3], 'p', 'prune');
from act + corr results (see robust_results_act_plus_corr) First prepare ‘seed’ regions that overlap with correlated regions, then use multi_threshold to see full extent of clusters
[dattype, seeddat] = iimg_check_indx(res.act.overlapdat, res.volInfo, 'full'); [cl, dat] = iimg_multi_threshold('rob_p_0001.img', 'p', 'thresh', [.001 .01 .05], 'size', [1 1 1], 'pruneseed', seeddat)
Display an Fmap from robust regression on a customized mean anatomical, with pruning.
cl = iimg_multi_threshold('rob_pmap_full.img', 'thresh', [.001 .01 .05], 'size', [1 1 1], 'p', 'prune', 'overlay', EXPT.overlay);
Display regions at 3 thresholds with an input data ‘seed’ vector
[cl, dat] = iimg_multi_threshold(pvals, 'p', 'thresh', [.001 .01 .05], 'size', [1 1 1], 'pruneseed', p_sig', 'volInfo', R.volInfo);
As above, but ONLY POSITIVE RESULTS
[cl, datout] = iimg_multi_threshold(pimg1, 'thresh', [.001 .01 .05], 'size', [1 1 1], 'p', 'pruneseed', dat, 'overlay', EXPT.overlay, 'colors', colors, 'transseed', 'pos', 'rob_tmap_0001.img');
Complete example for showing positive and negative blobs:
[clpos] = iimg_multi_threshold('slope_p.img', 'p', 'thresh', [.005 .01 .05], 'size', [1 1 1], 'prune', 'overlay', anat, 'pos', 'slope_t.img'); [clneg] = iimg_multi_threshold('slope_p.img', 'p', 'thresh', [.005 .01 .05], 'size', [1 1 1], 'prune', 'overlay', anat, 'neg', 'slope_t.img', 'add', 'colors', {[0 0 1] [0 .5 1] [.4 .5 1]});

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_princomp
(maskname, image_names)¶ Usage: [volInfo,clusters] = iimg_princomp(maskname,image_names)

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_princomp_display
(volInfo, k, overlay, dofigs)¶ Usage: cl = iimg_princomp_display(volInfo,k,overlay,dofigs)
Show output from iimg_princomp
Example: cl2 = iimg_princomp_display(volInfo2,1,EXPT.overlay);

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_read_img
(inputimgs, extended_output_flag, reading_data, first_vol)¶ Usage: [volInfo, dat] = iimg_read_img(inputimgs, [extended_output_flag (12)], [reading_data (01)], [first vol only (01)]);
 reads 3D or 4D img/nii files, with extended volInfo output
 flag to read first volume only
 can read iimg_data vectorized form as well as file names (just passes dat to output)
 uses SPM
 volInfo fields:
 all fields returned by spm_vol, plus:
 .nvox  number of voxels in 3d image
 .image_indx  logical index (e.g., [0 1 1 0 1 ...]) of all nonzero voxels
 .wh_inmask (extended_output_flag > 0)  linear index (e.g., [2 3 5 ...])  same as image_indx, but as a result of find
 .n_inmask (extended_output_flag > 0)  length of .wh_inmask
 .xyzlist (extended_output_flag > 0)  voxel coords of .wh_inmask voxels
 .cluster (extended_output_flag > 1)  cluster structure of inmask voxels
 Extended output flag values:
 1: Add xyz coord list and linear index of which voxels nonzero & nonnan in mask 2: Add clusters from spm_clusters
Enforces that dat is a vector of data values, regardless of input.
Examples: imname = 'rob_tmap_0001_filt_t_305_k5_pos.img'; volInfo = iimg_read_img(imname);
WARNING: The behavior of this function is SPM version dependent. volInfo only contains the spm_vol structure of the FIRST image!!! Data in SPM5/8 should be 4D, but in SPM2 should be 3D
 Get volume info from first volume of a 3D or 4D image
volInfo structure has necessary info for converting to/from “vectorized” format dat returns 4D data from entire image (all volumes)
iimg_name = 'test_run1_pca.img';
[maskInfo, dat] = iimg_read_img(img_name, 2);
Get data in “vectorized” image format for each volume in the image. Works for a list of images too. data is inmask voxels x volumes this can be useful when you want to return wholebrain data for many images, but in a search volume only (i.e., no extrabrain voxels)
idata = iimg_get_data(maskInfo, img_name); data = data'; % make sure columns are volumes
 % 3) Write out a 4D image with the same data, called test_run1_pca2.img
ivoldat3D = iimg_reconstruct_vols(data, maskInfo, 'outname', 'test_run1_pca2.img');

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_read_vols
(V, mask)¶ Dropin replacement for spm_read_vols Primary difference is that if the images have the same voxel size but are NOT resliced (e.g., have differing affine matrices), this will handle reading each individually and putting them together.

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_reconstruct_3dvol
(dat, volInfo, varargin)¶ Reconstruct a 3D volume from a dat index list
Usage: voldata = iimg_reconstruct_3dvol(dat, volInfo, [optional args])
Optional Inputs: if entered, will write .img file to disk
 ‘outname’:
followed by output name
 ‘descrip’:
followed by description for img file
 ‘slice’:
followed by slice number of singleslice data in image
THIS FUNCTION IS DEPRECATED. USE IIMG_RECONSTRUCT_VOLS.M’ WHICH CAN DEAL WITH 4D VOLUMES AS WELL

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_reconstruct_vols
(dat, volInfo, varargin)¶ Reconstruct a 3D or 4D volume from a “dat” matrix of vectorized images
Usage: voldata = iimg_reconstruct_vols(dat, volInfo, [optional args])
Optional Inputs: If entered, will write .img file to disk
 ‘outname’:
followed by output name
 ‘descrip’:
followed by description for img file
 ‘slice’:
followed by slice number of singleslice data in image
Example of image reading:  Get volume info from first volume of a 3D or 4D image
volInfo structure has necessary info for converting to/from “vectorized” format dat returns 4D data from entire image (all volumes)
img_name = 'test_run1_pca.img'; [maskInfo, dat] = iimg_read_img(img_name, 2);
Get data in “vectorized” image format for each volume in the image. Works for a list of images too. data is inmask voxels x volumes this can be useful when you want to return wholebrain data for many images, but in a search volume only (i.e., no extrabrain voxels)
data = iimg_get_data(maskInfo, img_name);
data = data’; % make sure columns are volumes
Write out a 4D image with the same data, called test_run1_pca2.img
voldat3D = iimg_reconstruct_vols(data, maskInfo, 'outname', 'test_run1_pca2.img');

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_reslice
(matchto, reslicethis, varargin)¶ Usage: out = iimg_reslice(matchto, reslicethis, varargin) out = iimg_reslice(matchto, reslicethis, 'write', 'outname', 'myimg.img')
default flags interp = 2 is trilinear

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_smooth_3d
(w, volInfo, sfwhm, varargin)¶ Smooth 3D images stored in columns with FWHM in mm of sfwhm
Usage: function w = smooth_3d(w, volInfo, sfwhm, [badvox])
NOTE: SMOOTHING KERNEL MAY BE IN VOX, AS VOL INFO IS NOT PASSED IN
Inputs:  w:
Take v x n matrix w, and smooth columns (images), returning v x n matrix again
 volInfo:
is volume info structure from iimg_read_img.m
Optional: If v is smaller than the original image because some voxels
were removed, enter logical vector badvox, and the missing voxels will be filled with zeros.
NOTE: 4D version is horribly slow and memory intensive:
Example: wvol = iimg_reconstruct_vols(w', fmri_data_obj.mask.volInfo);

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_sphere_timeseries
(images, XYZmmCenter, radius)¶ Usage: function [data, XYZvoxSphere, XYZmmSphere] = iimg_sphere_timeseries(images, XYZmm, radius)
Inputs:  images:
list of image files
 XYZmm:
[3 x n] array of mm coords
 radiu:
radius in mm of sphere to generate
Outputs:  data:
voxel data
 XYZvoxSphere:
voxel

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_stouffer
(Pimg, maskname, thr, clsize, outname)¶ This function performs combination of pvalues across images using the Stouffer method (see refs below).
Usage: function cl = iimg_stouffer(Pimg,maskname,thr,clsize,outname)
Inputs:  Pimg:
string mtx of pvalue image names
 k:
num voxels/num comparisons if empty, uses # of nonzero, nonNaN values in images
empty Pimg prompts for graphic selection of filenames empty outname prompts for entry of output img file name
Outputs:  cl:
clusters, cl{1} is stouffer, cl{2} is image 1, cl{3} is image 2
Described in: Lazar, N. A., Luna, B., Sweeney, J. A., & Eddy, W. F. (2002). Combining brains: a survey of methods for statistical pooling of information. Neuroimage, 16(2), 538550.
Stouffer, S. A., Suchman, E. A., DeVinney, L. C., Star, S. A., and Williams, R. M. 1949. The American Soldier: Vol. I. Adjustment During Army Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
...

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_threshold
(image_names, varargin)¶ Thresholds images to be at least thresh(1) and at most thresh(2)
Usage: function [dat, volInfo, cl] = iimg_threshold(image_names, varargin)
Input types for image names:  String matrix of filenames
 4D array of 3D data volumes
 voxels x images 2D index array
 image_vector object
Outputs:  imdat:
index vector of thresholded data
 volInfo:
structure of info about volume
 cl:
optional (slower) clusters structure from dat
Command strings:  ‘imgtype’:
followed by ‘t’, ‘p’, or ‘data’ (default)
specify type of values in image
 ‘threshtype’:
followed by ‘t’ or ‘p’
 ‘df’:
followed by degrees of freedom, for p and timage threshold calc
 ‘k’:
followed by extent threshold in voxels (slower)
 ‘abs’:
absolute value must be > threshold. Use to get both pos. and neg. results in twotailed test.
 ‘intersect:
Create intersection of images; uses abs, so + and  values count as yesses for intersection
 ‘contrast’:
followed by contrasts across images
 ‘volInfo:
followed by volInfo structure. Necessary for extended output
Examples: % Threshold an image set (p) to be at least zero image_names = /Users/tor/Documents/Tor_Documents/CurrentExperiments/Lab/Preappraisal/Results/rscalped_avg152T1_graymatter_smoothed.img /Users/tor/Documents/Tor_Documents/CurrentExperiments/Lab/Preappraisal/Results/t_intercept.img [dat, volInfo] = iimg_threshold(image_names, 'thr', 0); % Do the same, but take the intersection and write an output image [dat, volInfo] = iimg_threshold(image_names, 'thr', 3, 'outnames', 'intersct', 'masked_t.img'); % Threshold a timage based on a pvalue and a df image_names = '/Users/tor/Documents/Tor_Documents/CurrentExperiments/Lab/Preappraisal/Results/t_intercept.img' [dat, volInfo] = iimg_threshold(image_names, 'thr', .005, 'imgtype', 't', 'threshtype', 'p', 'df', 28, 'outnames', 'thresh_t.img'); cl = mask2clusters('masked_t.img'); cluster_orthviews(cl); % The same, but threshold based on absolute value (+ and  values) [dat, volInfo] = iimg_threshold(image_names, 'thr', .005, 'abs', 'imgtype', 't', 'threshtype', 'p', 'df', 28, 'outnames', 'thresh_t.img'); % Threshold a pvalue image directly [dat, volInfo] = iimg_threshold('XMY_pvals.img', 'thr', [0 .05], 'outnames', 'XMY_pvals_thresh.img'); [dat, volInfo, cl] = iimg_threshold(inname, 'thr', [0 .05], 'outnames', outname); % Threshold a pvalue image, with cluster sizes [dat, volInfo, cl] = iimg_threshold(inname, 'thr', [0 .05], 'k', 10); % Threshold and display a timage using FDR, getting both positive and negative results [dat, volInfo, cl] = iimg_threshold('contrast_t.img', 'imgtype', 't', 'df', 37, 'thr', .2, 'threshtype', 'fdr', 'k', 3, 'abs'); cluster_orthviews(cl); spm_orthviews_hotcool_colormap(cat(2,cl.Z), 1.52);

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_weighted_ttest
(image_names, varargin)¶ fast weighted test
Examples: iimg_weighted_ttest(image_names,'mask',maskname)

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_write_images
(dat, volInfo, outnames)¶ Write a series of Analyze images given inputs.
Usage: iimg_write_images(dat,volInfo,outnames)
Inputs:  dat:
voxels x images matrix of image data in index format
 volInfo:
spmstyle info structure; see iimg_read_img
 outnames:
a string matrix (or cell array) of output filenames, or the name of a 4D file to create

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_xyz2indx
(xyz, xyztype, V)¶ Usage: [indx, wh] = iimg_xyz2indx(xyz, input type:['mm' or 'vox'], [V: needed if 'mm'])

Index_image_manip_tools.
iimg_xyz2spheres
(xyz, mask_xyzlist, r)¶ Usage: indx = iimg_xyz2spheres(xyz, mask_xyzlist, r)
Inputs:  mask_xyzlist:
is a list of voxel coords of all inmask voxels
 xyz:
is a list of voxels to be convolved with spheres
 r:
is sphere radius (voxels)
more generally, finds mask_xyzlist entries that are within r units of xyz i.e., to find database points within r mm of a cluster xyz list: indx = iimg_xyz2spheres(clusterxyz,databasexyz,r)
indx is length mask_xyzlist and contains all inmask, insphere voxels for all xyz coordinates.
Misc_utilities¶

Misc_utilities.
CERTreader
(fname)¶ Given an output file from CERT, returns a struct with the data
Input:  fname:
filename
Output: struct with the data

Misc_utilities.
append
(a, b, field)¶ Appends second parameter to the end of the first. If field is set, writes into the field instead of directly into the variable.
Usage: a = append(a, data, [field])
This function solely exists because Matlab has no ability to create empty objects (e.g. with one dimension being 0) and thus, trying to append to an empty array results in type cast errors, since empty matrices are double by default.

Misc_utilities.
blank_struct
(A, blank_val)¶ Utility function to create a blank structure, using an existing one as a template.
Inputs:  A:
template structure
 blank_val:
all fields will be set to this value, e.g. [] or ‘’
Output:  C:
structure containing fields of A , with values set to empty array
Only works for singleelement nonnested structures, for now

Misc_utilities.
checkMatlabVersion
(datestr)¶ Usage: ok = checkMatlabVersion(datestr)
check Matlab version against release date of version needed (or recommended)
Inputs:  datestr:
format is one of the forms taken by datenum.
Example: check for Matlab release date on or after Aug. 3, 2006
ok = checkMatlabVersion('8/3/2006')

Misc_utilities.
circle
(center, radius, varargin)¶ draws a circle
Usage: [h, fillh] = circle(center, radius, ['fill'], [color string or numbers])
‘fill’ requires the geom2d toolbox, by David Legland

Misc_utilities.
combine_structs
(A, B, prefix)¶ Utility function to combine the fields of two structures.
Inputs:  A, B:
structs to be combined
 prefix:
string applied to fields of structure B
Output:  C:
structure containing fields of both A and B
Only works for singleelement nonnested structures, for now

Misc_utilities.
condf2indic
(X)¶ Create N x k indicator matrix of ones/zeros from N x 1 list of numeric values (X)
Usage: [indic, xlevels] = condf2indic(X)
Outputs:  indic:
is returned as single precision type, because it can then be used as a design matrix in a GLM
 xlevels:
are the values of X corresponding to columns of indic

Misc_utilities.
depfun_aggregate
(funname, excludes, save_dir)¶ depfun_aggregate is for packaging all the files needed for a function in one spot
Usage: dependencies = depfun_aggregate(funname, excludes, save_dir)
Inputs:  funname:
function to analyze
 excludes:
cellstrs to exclude from the matches
 save_dir:
directory to copy files to  defaults to ‘tmp_files’
Example: dependencies = depfun_aggregate('whole_brain_fir', {'spm2', 'spm5'}, 'fir_files')

Misc_utilities.
distance
(u, v)¶ Euclidean distance between u and v
Usage: d = distance(u, v)
Inputs:  u and v:
should be column vectors or matrices in kdim space, where k is the number of columns of u and v.
if u is a single row, replicates u to size(v,1)

Misc_utilities.
distance_euclid
(u, v)¶ Euclidean distance between u and v
Usage: d = distance_euclid(u, v)
Inputs:  u and v:
should be column vectors or matrices in kdim space, where k is the number of columns of u and v.
if u is a single row, replicates u to size(v,1)

Misc_utilities.
erase_and_display
(old_str, new_str)¶ Backspaces the number of chars of the length of old_str, then prints new_str

Misc_utilities.
erase_string
(str)¶ Backspaces the number of chars of the length of str

Misc_utilities.
explode
(string, delimiters)¶ EXPLODE Splits string into pieces.
EXPLODE(STRING,DELIMITERS) returns a cell array with the pieces of STRING found between any of the characters in DELIMITERS.
Usage: [SPLIT,NUMPIECES] = EXPLODE(STRING,DELIMITERS)
also returns the number of pieces found in STRING.
Inputs:  STRING:
the string to split (string)
 DELIMITERS:
the delimiter characters (string)
Outputs:  SPLIT:
the split string (cell array), each cell is a piece
 NUMPIECES:
the number of pieces found (integer)
Examples: STRING = 'ab_c,d,e fgh' DELIMITERS = '_,' [SPLIT,NUMPIECES] = EXPLODE(STRING,DELIMITERS) SPLIT = 'ab' 'c' 'd' 'e fgh' NUMPIECES = 4
See also: IMPLODE, STRTOK

Misc_utilities.
fast_conv_fft
(hrf, x, varargin)¶ Usage: y = fast_conv_fft(hrf,x)
Much faster than conv or using matrix multiplication.
Inputs:  hrf:
should be length of x
Examples: y = fast_conv_fft(hrf,x); y = fast_conv_fft(hrf,x3,'deconv');

Misc_utilities.
getRandom
(stimList)¶ Randomizes rows of a matrix, preserving dependencies between columns
Usage: stimList = getRandom(stimList)
Input: a col. vector or matrix of stimulus conditions,
e.g. [1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4]’
 output: a randomized permutation of this vector or matrix
 all columns are resorted with the same order

Misc_utilities.
get_first_help_lines
(functionname, maxlines)¶ Returns the first n lines of the help for a function in a cell array
Usage: helptext = get_first_help_lines(functionname, [maxlines]) helptext = get_first_help_lines(functionname, maxlines)
Examples: helptext = get_first_help_lines('fmri_data.apply_mask', 5); char(helptext{:})

Misc_utilities.
implode
(pieces, delimiter)¶ IMPLODE Joins strings with delimiter in between.
IMPLODE(PIECES,DELIMITER) returns a string containing all the strings in PIECES joined with the DELIMITER string in between.
Inputs:  PIECES:
the pieces of string to join (cell array), each cell is a piece
 DELIMITER:
the delimiter string to put between the pieces (string)
Output:  STRING:
all the pieces joined with the delimiter in between (string)
Examples: PIECES = {'ab','c','d','e fgh'} DELIMITER = '>' STRING = IMPLODE(PIECES,DELIMITER) STRING = ab>c>d>e fgh
See also: EXPLODE, STRCAT

Misc_utilities.
naninsert
(nanvec, y)¶ Insert NaNs back into data series from which they were removed
Usage: yout = naninsert(nanvec, y)
nanvec is indicator for NaNs, of size size(yout). y is data.
If y is a matrix, length(nanvec) should equal number of rows in y. NaNs are inserted for true values in nanvec in all columns of y.
See also: nanremove.m

Misc_utilities.
nanremove
(varargin)¶ Usage: varargout = nanremove(varargin) [nanvec, x1, x2, etc.] = nanremove(x1,x2,etc...)
removes cases that are NaN in any column of any variable x1...xn

Misc_utilities.
oneinsert
(removed_voxels, data)¶ Insert ones (for p values) back into data series (i.e., obj.p) from which they were removed.
Usage: yout = oneinsert(removed_voxels, data)
removed_voxels is indicator for the locations of removed voxels
This function is a modified version of naninsert.m, but different.
See also: naninsert.m, nanremove.m, zeroinsert.m

Misc_utilities.
orthviews_multiple_objs
(imgs)¶ plot multiple image objects on one orthviews
Input: cell array of image_vectors or statistic_images

Misc_utilities.
pad
(x, L)¶ Usage: x = pad(x,L)
pads x with zeros of length L
or, if L is a vector, to longest of two (NOT DONE)
COLUMN VECTORS

Misc_utilities.
padwithnan
(A, B, dim)¶ returns the two input arrays, with the smaller padded to the size of the larger in the particular dimension(s) with NaNs
Usage: [Anew Bnew] = padwithnan(A, B, dim)

Misc_utilities.
parse_char_to_cell
(invar, sepval)¶ take a row of characters and separate into cells, breaking at either spaces or tabs
Usage: Usage: outcell = parse_char_to_cell(invar,sepval)
Examples: % copy from Excel as row, then parse: disorder = ['SAD PTSD PTSD PTSD PTSD PTSD SP SAD PTSD PTSD PTSD PTSD PTSD SAD SAD PTSD PTSD SP SP SP PTSD PTSD PTSD PTSD SAD SAD SAD SP SAD SAD SAD SP SP SP SAD SP PTSD SP PTSD PTSD']; disorder = parse_char_to_cell(disorder, 'tab');

Misc_utilities.
parse_edat_txt
(fname)¶ Reads EPrime .txt output (equivalent to EDAT) directly into matlab cell arrays/structures
Inputs:
 fname:
 name of file to parse
Outputs:  edat_struct:
Structure containing the following fields:
header: 1element structure whose fields are header items from EDAT
run: 1element structure whose fields are runspecific items from EDAT
 trials: nelement structure whose fields are trialspecific items from EDAT
where n is the number of trials
 edat_cells:
Structure containing the following fields:
header_cols: 1row cell array whose fields are header column names from EDAT
run_cols: 1row cell array whose cells are runspecific column names from EDAT
trials_cols: 1row cell array whose cells are trialspecific column names from EDAT
header: 1row cell array whose cells are header items from EDAT
run: 1row cell array whose cells are runspecific items from EDAT
 trials: nrow cell array whose cells are trialspecific items from EDAT
where n is the number of trials
 Two passes are necessary:
 find all fields used in the file
 actually read the data

Misc_utilities.
print_matrix
(x, varargin)¶ prints matrix values as tab delimited, 2 decimal places
Usage: print_matrix(x,[col names cell array], [row names cell], [format string])
Examples: t = [1 2; 3 4; 5 6]; print_matrix(t,{'col1' 'col2'},{'row1' 'row2' 'row3'); print_matrix(rand(5), [], [], '%3.2f'); print_matrix(rand(5), {'A' 'B' 'C' 'D' 'E'}, {'A' 'B' 'C' 'D' 'E'}, '%3.2f'); print_matrix(rand(5), {'A' 'B' 'C' 'D' 'E'}, {'A' 'B' 'C' 'D' 'E'}, '%d');

Misc_utilities.
progressbar
(meth, val)¶ Create a progress bar window with tag ‘progressbar’ that can be updated
Usage: progressbar(meth,val)
Inputs:  meth:
can be ‘init’ or ‘update’
xaxis limits are 0  100, so val should be % complete for best results
Outputs: the f and ax handles are not really needed as ‘update’ finds the axis with ‘progressbar’ tag. Example: progressbar('update',100*i./nvars);

Misc_utilities.
read_edat_output_2008
(fname, varargin)¶ Function that creates a structure DATA containing columns of the edat file output (saved in text tab delimited “excel” format)
Usage: DATA = read_edat_output_2008(fname, varargin)
For this code to work on a Mac, you must: 1) export .edat2 file as an Excel file, then 2) open this file in Excel on a Mac and save as a .csv, 3) read that .csv file
Examples: fname = 'myfile.txt'; DATA = read_edat_output_2008(fname)
Defaults: These are the default formats this function expects: tab delimited, 1 header row, then row of column names, then data
You can override some of them by using the following – E.g., for zero header rows and comma delimited data:
DATA = read_edat_output_2008(fname, 'nheaderrows', 0, 'mydelimiter', ',')
You can force the number of columns to be a certain value by doing the following:
DATA = read_edat_output_2008(fname, 'nheaderrows', 1, 'numc', 103);
This could be useful if your last row contains empty cells at the end, which will mess up the automatic calculation of number of columns.

Misc_utilities.
robustcsvread
(filename, varargin)¶ ROBUSTCSVREAD reads in CSV files with different number of columns on different lines
This returns a struct, with one field per column of the csv file. Each field is a cell array whose length = rows in the csv file. Column names are assumed to be in the first row. If column names are invalid struct field names, edits them by replacing funky characters with an underscore, or if first char is a number, I prepend aa_ to the field name.
Inputs:  varargin:
cols: how many cols to read in, by defaults reads them all
rows_to_skip: how many rows to skip
delim: cell delimiter
 missing: followed by cell array, first cell is val for missing,
second cell is what to replace with

Misc_utilities.
scn_get_datetime
(varargin)¶ Usage: str = scn_get_datetime
pass in ‘ymd’ to get the string in yyyy_mm_ddHH_MM format, so that alphanumeric order will correspond to chronological order
Returns a string with the date and time Useful for annotating data and output

Misc_utilities.
scn_mat_conform
(in)¶ Usage: function in = scn_mat_conform(in)
sets flipping to 0 (no flip) in SPM2 and adjusts mat file accordingly input in spmstyle mat file or struct with .mat or .M fields

Misc_utilities.
search_struct_fields
(search_struct, fieldname, fieldpath)¶ Returns a list of all paths inside structure search_struct that match the fieldname (or start with it)
Usage: found_paths = search_struct_fields(search_struct, fieldname)
Examples: foo = []; foo.foo = []; foo.foo.foo = []; search_struct_fields(foo, 'foo') ans = 'foo.foo' 'foo.foo.foo' % or search_struct_fields(SPM, 'x') ans = 'SPM.xX' 'SPM.xM' 'SPM.xsDes' 'SPM.xX.xVi' 'SPM.xX.xKXs' 'SPM.xM.xs'

Misc_utilities.
strip_path_dirs
(patterns)¶ Removes directories from the Matlab path, based on the rgex patterns passed in.
Usage: function strip_path_dirs(regexes)

Misc_utilities.
strip_svn_dirs
()¶ Removes the .svn dirs from the path

Misc_utilities.
strrep_recurse
(old_var, old_string, new_string, depth)¶ Recursively traverses depthfirst through an entire variable, replacing old_string with new_string everywhere it goes
Usage: new_var = strrep_recurse(old_var, old_string, new_string)

Misc_utilities.
struct_strrep
(old_struct, old_string, new_string, depth)¶ Traverses depthfirst through an entire structure, replacing old_string with new_string everywhere it goes
Usage: new_struct = struct_strrep(old_struct, old_string, new_string)

Misc_utilities.
tor_ga
(gensize, numgen, inputs, ofun, varargin)¶ Usage: [best_params,fit,beff,in,isconverged] = tor_ga(gensize,numgen,inputs,ofun,[optional in any order: genfun,fixed inputs,cmd strings])
Inputs: a cell array describing the inputs to the optimization function (parameters to be optimized). Each cell of inputs is a p x q matrix of parameters. p and q are arbitrary, as each organism is described by a p x q matrix...but the objective function must be able to handle inputs in the format you provide. Internally, a set of ‘organisms’ is created that is params x params x organisms (3D). This matrix is subject to crossover across orgs. separately for each cell. If inputs is a p x q matrix, it will be placed in a single cell.
By default, it is only necessary to enter a single set of params for an example organism. The range of those input values is used to generate random starting values for each organism.
There can be more than one set of parameters that are combined in some way by ofun to produce a fitness value. if there is more than one set of input parameters, inputs should be entered as a cell array, one cell per input. inputs should be in ORDER of inputs entered to ofun!
RECOMMENDED
If you enter each cell of inputs as a 3D array so that inputs(:,:,1) is the min acceptable value for each param and inputs(:,:,2) is the max acceptable value, then the ga will create a series of organisms at start that evenly span the range of the multivariate parameter space, with the spacing between values determined by the gensize. This can provide a huge advantage in efficiency for the GA. This is the idea behind the “Sobol sequence,” which chooses values that evenly span a multivariate space. With this option, if gensize is sufficiently large and the param space is sufficiently small, then the ga may find the correct solution on the first iteration. However, it is not likely to work well if the num. params >> gensize
Examples: start = [15 15]; start(:,:,2) = [15 15]; [best_params,fit,beff,in] = tor_ga(324,30,{start},objfun_ga,'genconverge',5);
 ofun
 the objective function that combines the inputs.
 There are two options for passing this in:
enter the name of the function as a string. the program creates a handle for the function, and evaluates it using inputs specified in the inputs variable. In this case, pass in fixed inputs after ofun, in the varargin fields fixed inputs optional, fixed inputs that do not change! same structure as inputs.
You can also enter ofun as a function handle durectly, with fixed inputs already embedded before running the program. The function should take as input a param list, and return fitness. e.g.,
objhan = @(params) my_function_name(params,fixed_inputs1,fixed_inputs1,fixed_inputs1); objhan = @(wh) prospect_organism(ceil(wh),pop,truep,iter);
Pass in objhan as the ‘ofun’ input argument
 genfun
 [optional] input param generation function
A function handle that generates a parameter set for each organism
 command strings
 ‘noverbose’ turn off verbose reporting and plots
 ‘genconverge’ followed by integer x: converge if no change in last x generations
Examples: Example for fitting indscal model:
inputs{1} = X; fixin{1} = sp; fixin{2} = B1; fixin{3} = B2; tor_ga(30,10,inputs,'indscalf',fixin); W = rand(size(W)); W(1,:) = [10 10];, W(2,:) = [10 10]; inputs{2} = W;
Example: Optimize gambles for prospect theory model See prospect_optimize_design.m for definition of population of gambles from which to draw (pop), truep, iter (all fixed inputs)
objhan = @(wh) prospect_organism(ceil(wh),pop,truep,iter); genfun = @() randsample(gindx,ntrials,'true')'; [best_params,fit,beff,in] = tor_ga(5,3,wh,objhan,genfun);
Using string inputs to control behavior:
[best_params,fit,beff,in] = tor_ga(300,30,{[15; 15]},objfun_ga,'genconverge',5,'noverbose');

Misc_utilities.
zeroinsert
(wasbad, y)¶ Reinsert removed CASES (rows) and fill with zeros
Usage: yout = zeroinsert(wasbad, y)
wasbad is indicator for removed cases, of size size(yout). y is data.
if you enter y’, inserts VARIABLES (cols). here, pass in v x n matrix, y’ to fill empty/removed vars
See nanremove.m and naninsert.m
Model_building_tools¶

Model_building_tools.
fmri_spline_basis
(TR, varargin)¶ Usage: xBF = spline_hrf_basis(TR, optional args)
Inputs:  imTR:
repetition time; sampling resolution of data
 ‘plot’:
optional: plot basis set
 ‘nbasis’:
optional: number of knot points
 ‘order’:
optional: order of spline model (# matched derivatives)
 ‘length’:
optional: length of window to model, in seconds
Outputs: :Inputs:
 xBF.dt:
 time bin length {seconds}
 xBF.name:
 description of basis functions specified
 xBF.length:
 window length (seconds)
 xBF.order:
 order
 xBF.bf:
Matrix of basis functions
32 second long spline basis set for fmri model
 xBF_hires:
 Sampled at high resolution, TR * 16
 xBF:
 Sampled at TR
Examples: [xBF_hires, xBF] = fmri_spline_basis(TR, varargin) [xBF_hires, xBF] = fmri_spline_basis(2, 'length', 12, 'nbasis', 3, 'order', 3, 'plot');

Model_building_tools.
getPredictors
(stimList, HRF, varargin)¶ Build predictors and delta functions, given a condition function or delta function and either a convolution matrix or vector.
Usage: [model,delta] = getPredictors(stimList, HRF, varargin)
IMPORTANT: YOU MUST ADD THE INTERCEPT YOURSELF!
Inputs:  stimList:
condition function OR delta function (1/0 indicator)
 HRF:
hemodynamic response function
Basis set (columns)
or convolution matrix (columns are HRF), defined as: HRF = tril(toeplitz(hrf));
multiple column vectors for HRF are treated as basis functions!
 varargin for downsampleing:
‘dsrate’: takes every nth element of the design matrix
‘dslen’: the target number (length) you want to downsample to
Other Optional Inputs:  ‘force_delta’:
getPredictors tries to determine if the input stimList is a condition function with integers or a delta function with indicators, but this can fail in some cases. Use this to force it to treat as a delta function.
a col. vector of stimulus conditions OR a delta function matrix
 an HRF vector sampled at the frequency of the stimulus vector, OR
a convolution matrix H (empty for default)
Optional: downsampling factor for final design (i.e., TR)
Optional: parametric modulator keyword and modulator values
 ‘parametric_singleregressor’ : Parametrically modulate onsets by
modulator values, using single regressor with modulated amplitude Enter a cell array with modulator values for each event type, with a column vector (empty cell for no modulation)
 ‘parametric_standard’ : Parametrically modulate onsets by
modulator values, using two regressors per event type  One to model the average response, and one for the meancentered modulator values
Outputs:  a n x 2 matrix of regressors (cols) for each condition
 a n x k delta matrix with onsets
Example: TR = 2, 16 samples per second in hires delta dhr
X = getPredictors(dhr, hrf, 'dsrate', res*TR); X = getPredictors(dhr, hrf, 'dslen', len/(res*TR));
stimList can be condition function e.g., [1 3 2 4 3 2 1]’ or delta matrix (n x k), n samples and k conditions, e.g., [1 0 0 0 1 0 1]’
Resampling: the default N in matlab resample has builtin antialiasing, but may not be good for fmri designs! The appropriate downsampling is expected to be res*TR (res is units of samples/s), but we use 0 because the model will depend on the analysis method used, and this is the most veridical approach. With N = 0, every ith sample is used, where i is the downsampling factor you input. Popular choices are 16*TR (for onsets2delta.m), using the SPM default res of 16. Delta is NOT resampled.
Example: TR = 2, 16 samples per second in hires delta dhr [tmp,d] = downsample_delta(dhr,16*2); X=getPredictors(d,hrf);

Model_building_tools.
ideal_deconv6
(conditions, mspec, ttype)¶ Tests deconvolution matrix directly against idealized data you put in the exact temporal sequence to be deconvolved, in the form of the DX matrix.
Usage: [rmsd,msdstd,msdb,biasmean,meanest,min95est,max95est,ALLINFO,hrf,snr,TR] = ideal_deconv6(conditions,mspec,ttype)
Inputs:  DX:
deconvolution matrix
 tp:
time points estimated for each condition in DX
 TR:
repetition time of scan
 ttype:
trial types to test (out of 1:n different conditions in DX) recommended for time saving to use ttype = a single number only
This function is like ideal_deconv5, but tests variability across designs as well.

Model_building_tools.
intercept_model
(nvols_per_run, varargin)¶ Build design matrix X for intercepts given vector of session lengths [s1 s2 s3] in images
Usage: x = intercept_model(nvols_per_run, [indx of dummy scans in each session])
Examples: nvols_per_run = [166 166 144 137]; x = intercept_model(nvols_per_run); x = intercept_model(repmat(166, 1, 5)); Xi = intercept_model(EXPT.FIR.nruns, 1:2);

Model_building_tools.
modifiedconv
(tr, condf, varargin)¶ Usage: model = modifiedconv(tr,condf,heighteq [all opt],delayeq,ttopeakeq,uonseteq)
Inputs:  tr:
repetition time (sampling rate) of scanning, in seconds
 condf:
 condition function
an indicator vector of zeros and ones, where ones indicate event onsets
USES nonlinear saturation in height only with a guess as to what the decrease in saturation is as a function of the time since previous stimulation (exponential model, alpha version)
Examples: condf = [1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0]'; X = modifiedconv(2,condf); % X is convolved predictor plot(X) X2 = conv(condf,spm_hrf(2)./max(spm_hrf(2))); hold on; plot(X2,'r'); legend({'Modified' 'Linear'})
Please see: Wager, T. D., Hernandez, L., Vasquez, A., Nichols, T., and Noll, D. C. (in press). Accounting for nonlinear BOLD effects in fMRI: Parameter estimates and model for accurate prediction in variableduration blocked and rapid eventrelated studies. Neuroimage.
 heighteq = []; delayeq = []; peakeq = []; uonseteq = [];
 defaults

Model_building_tools.
onsets2delta
(ons, len)¶ Builds highres delta function, given cell array of onset times
Usage: delta = onsets2delta(ons, [length: num rows in original units])
Tor Wager, 2 / 24 / 04, update 10 / 12 / 10
Inputs:  ons:
onsets for each of a series of conditions
One cell per condition per session, e.g., ons{1} = [24 27 29 44]’;
Units are arbitrary (e.g., TRs or seconds)
Onsets are assumed to start at time 0 (0 is start of run/session)
e.g., from an SPM.mat fmri design structure, for one session:
ons = cell(1, nconds); [ons{:}] = deal(reportmod_model.Sess(1).U(:).ons)
 len:
optional: number of rows in original units. Useful for making
a design matrix with the right number of rows after convolution and downsampling
Output:  delta:
indicator matrix of vectors for each condition with 1/0 for each onset
Type is logical; you may want to do double(delta) before operating
Resolution of highres delta functions = original units (secs or TRs) * 16
The number of rows is the max onset + 1, times 16
For what to do with output, see: getPredictors : for designmatrix building downsample_canlab : for downsampling to TR/secs
See also: ONSETS2FMRIDESIGN and objectoriented fmri_model object (methods: build, etc.)

Model_building_tools.
onsets2dx
(onsets, TR, scansperrun, numseconds)¶ Usage: [DX,delta] = onsets2dx(onsets, TR, scansperrun, numseconds)
Inputs:  onsets:
cell array whose length is num runs * num conditions, e.g., {run 1 ant onsets, run 1 stim onsets, run 2 ant onsets, run 2 stim onsets}
 TR:
TR in seconds
 scansperrun:
number of volumes in each run
 numseconds:
number of seconds after event onsets to generate regressors for [default: 32]
Examples: TR = 2; scansperrun = [192 196 196 184 190 192]; numseconds = 30; [DX,delta] = onsets2dx(onsets, TR, scansperrun, numseconds) EXPT.FIR.model{subjectnumber} = DX;

Model_building_tools.
onsets2fmridesign
(ons, TR, varargin)¶ Builds design matrix X and delta function, given cell array of onset times in s One cell per condition per session, e.g., ons{1} = [24 27 29 44]’;
Usage: [X, delta, delta_hires, hrf] = onsets2fmridesign(onsets, TR, [len], [custom hrf or basis set name],[other optional args, i.e., norm])
 Summary:
 handles multiple conditions
 handles custom HRFs and multiple basis functions
 handles input event durations
 handles two kinds of parametric modulators
 handles variableduration onsets
 handles nonlinear saturation (see hrf_saturation.m)
 Can build singletrial model
 not yet: variableduration parametric modulators
 See the code comments for a discussion of absolute scaling of regressors and efficiency.
Inputs:  onsets:
 1st column is onsets for events,
 2nd column is optional durations for each event
 Enter single condition or cell vector with cells for each condition (each event type).
 TR:
RT in seconds
Optional Inputs: First two are fixed, then keywords:
 len:
optional length in s for model, or [] to skip if using additional. “len” is usually the number of images multiplied by TR.
 HRF name:
 string or actual values
 a string used by spm_get_bf.m
 a custom HRF, sampled in seconds
 or [] to skip
 ‘norm’:
meancenter, orthogonalize, and L2norm basis set
 ‘parametric_singleregressor’:
 Parametrically modulate onsets by
modulator values, using single regressor with modulated amplitude Enter a cell array with modulator values for each event type, with a column vector (empty cell for no modulation)
 ‘parametric_standard’:
Parametrically modulate onsets by modulator values, using two regressors per event type  One to model the average response, and one for the meancentered modulator values of modulator values in each cell
 ‘noampscale’:
Do not scale HRF to max amplitude = 1; default with SPM basis sets is to scale. Custom HRF entries are not scaled.
 ‘noundershoot’:
Do not model undershoot  ONLY when using the canonical HRF
 ‘customneural’:
Followed by a vector of custom neural values (instead of standard event/epochs), sampled in sec.
Limitation: can only handle two events max within the same TR
Outputs:  X:
model, sampled at TR
 delta:
indicator mtx, sampled at TR
 delta_hires:
indicator sampled at 16 Hz
 hrf:
hemodynamic response function, sampled at 16 Hz
Examples: X = onsets2fmridesign(ons, TR, size(imgs, 1) .* TR, 'hrf (with time derivative)'); X = onsets2fmridesign({[0 30 60]' [15 45 90']}, 1.5, 180, spm_hrf(1), 'parametric_standard', {[2 .5 1]' [1 2 2.5]'}); figure; plot(X) X = onsets2fmridesign({[0 30 60]' [15 45 90']}, 1, 180, spm_hrf(1), 'parametric_standard', {[2 .5 1]' [1 2 2.5]'}); figure; plot(X) X = onsets2fmridesign({[0 30 60]' [15 45 90']}, 2, 180, spm_hrf(1), 'parametric_standard', {[2 .5 1]' [1 2 2.5]'}); figure; plot(X) X = onsets2fmridesign({[0 30 60]' [15 45 90']}, 2, 180, spm_hrf(1), 'parametric_singleregressor', {[2 .5 1]' [1 2 2.5]'}); figure; plot(X) X = onsets2fmridesign({[0 30 60]' [15 45 90']}, 1, 180, spm_hrf(1), 'parametric_singleregressor', {[2 .5 1]' [1 2 2.5]'}); figure; plot(X) % Here, spm_hrf(1) is for the canonical HRF in spm. X = onsets2fmridesign(ons, 2, size(dat.dat, 2) .* 2, [], [], 'noampscale'); X2 = onsets2fmridesign(onsp, 2, length(dat.removed_images) .* 2, [], [], 'customneural', report_predictor); plotDesign(ons,[], TR, 'yoffset', 1);
A note on absolute scaling and efficiency: Scaling of the response influences efficiency. It does not affect model fits or power when the scaling is equated (constant across events in a design), but it does affect efficiency simulations.
 Event duration:
 assumes that the max neural sampling rate is about 1 Hz, which produces responses that do not exceed about 5x the unit, singleevent response. This is a reasonable assumption, and affects only the absolute scaling across ISIs/block lengths.
An event duration of about 1 sec produces a response of unit amplitude. The sampling resolution is 0.1 sec, so that is the lowest you can go  and it will produce lower response amplitude/less efficient designs, as less neural activity is being delivered. If event durations are not entered, then events will have unit amplitude by default.
See Also: tor_make_deconv_mtx3, [or 2], plotDesign

Model_building_tools.
onsets2parametric_mod_X
(ons, pm_vals, nscan, basisset, varargin)¶ Examples: ons = ons{1}; %obj.Sess(1).U(1).ons ./ TR; pm_vals = obj.Sess(1).U(1).P.P; nscan = obj.nscan(s);

Model_building_tools.
plot_ideal_deconv5
(rmsd, msdstd, msdb, biasmean, meanest, min95est, max95est, INFO, hrf, snr, TR, varargin)¶ Usage: function plot_ideal_deconv5(rmsd,msdstd,msdb,biasmean,meanest,min95est,max95est,INFO,hrf,snr,TR,[truer])
delta should be matrix of column vectors
optional: truer, vector of “true” responses for each trial type

Model_building_tools.
spm_mat2batchinput
(SPM)¶ Extract info from SPM structure and format in batch input mode
Usage: [imgs, TR, scanspersess, names, onsets, durations] = spm_mat2batchinput(SPM)
:Input into SPM8:
tmod = time modulator (number per cell, order, linear = 1)
For parametric modulation include a structure array, which is up to 1 x n in size, called pmod. n must be less than or equal to the number of cells in the names/onsets/durations cell arrays. The structure array pmod must have the fields: name, param and poly. Each of these fields is in turn a cell array to allow the inclusion R for regressors of no interest
NOTES: This is a preliminary version of this function and does not extract covariates, parametric modulators, etc.
Returns output in the format you would use to enter into the SPM GUI to set up a model. Same format is used by canlab_spm_fmri_model_job.m

Model_building_tools.
tor_make_deconv_mtx3
(sf, tp, eres, varargin)¶ Usage: function [DX,sf] = tor_make_deconv_mtx(sf,tp,eres,[opt] TRs before stim onset,[num. sessions],[docenter],[scanspersess])
Inputs:  sf:
cell array of stick functions, one per condition all sf cells should be of the same length
Or matrix of stick functions, 1 column per condition
 tp:
number of timepoints to estimate in hrf deconvolution matrix
 eres:
timebins in sf array for each TR
 DX:
deconvolution matrix estimates O.tp time points for each condition Time resolution is in TRs
Optional: TRs before: 0 or number of timepoints to shift LEFT
number of sessions; if > 1, adds sessionspecific intercepts
docenter, 1/0 for do/do not center columns, default 0
 scanspersess: how many scans per session? prevents regressors from
running over into the next session (recursive).
No parametric modulation of sf’s allowed.
Outputs:  sf:
stick function resampled at TR
Parcellation_tools¶

Parcellation_tools.
cluster_princomp
(clusters, varargin)¶ Usage: function [clusters,subclusters] = cluster_princomp(clusters,[behavioral score vector],[corr flag],[plotflag],[locflag])
ALSO TRY: subcluster_montage(subclusters{1}) % to plot the output
Inputs:  clusters:
is structure of clusters from tor_extract_rois.m
behavioral vector is row vector of behavioral or other scores to correlate
corr flag: *1 = work on correlations among voxels, 2 = work on covariance
plotflag: *1 = yes, 0 = no. plots.
 locflag: 1 yes, *0 no; add XYZ voxel locations (scaled) to data submitted to clustering
pushes voxels closer in space to be classified in the same cluster
try this to test the program on random data:
cl(1).all_data = randn(23,30);cl(1).numVox = 30;cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1); cl(1).all_data(:,1:10) = cl(1).all_data(:,1:10) + 10; cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1); cl(1).all_data(:,25:30) = cl(1).all_data(:,25:30) + repmat((EXPT.behavior .* 3)',1,6); cl(1).all_data(:,21:24) = cl(1).all_data(:,21:24) + repmat((1:23)',1,4); cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1);
meancenter everything now:
cl.PCA = []; cl.all_data  cl.all_data  repmat(mean(cl.all_data),size(cl.all_data,1),1); cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1);
add another correlated group:
cl.all_data(:,1:5) = cl.all_data(:,1:5) + repmat(rand(23,1)*5,1,5); cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1);
if component scores are used and correlated with behavior, this means that the subjects tend to show the behavioral effect who also show the pattern associated with comp. x. this may mean high on a number of voxels, or high on some and low on others. the weights may be used to interpret what the components mean, and this can be done graphically.
ttests on component scores have ambiguous interpretations, because a high tscore may indicate negative values or closetozero values on some voxels. a component could have the interpretation, “high on this component means high on V1 and low on V2.”
classifying voxels is done using cluster analysis (hierarchical, centroid linkage) on the voxels (observations) using the PCA weights (eigenvectors) as variables. This lets the clustering algorithm work in the reduced variable space with dimensionality equal to the number of components. The max number of clusters is restricted based on the gradient of the eigenvalues in the PCA maxclusters = 1 + the number of eigenvalues with gradient at least 20% of the initial drop from 1 to 2 eigenvalues.
Requires clustering library in Matlab. Robust option also uses the robust PCA algorithm RAPCA, created by: Hubert, M., Rousseeuw, P.J., Verboven, S. (2002),
“A fast method for robust principal components with applications to chemometrics”, by Mia Hubert, Peter J. Rousseeuw, Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 60, 101111.

Parcellation_tools.
inconsistent
(Z, depth)¶ Inconsistent values of a cluster tree.
Y = INCONSISTENT(Z) computes the inconsistent value of each nonleaf node in the hierarchical cluster tree Z. Z is a (M1)by3 matrix generated by the function LINKAGE. Each inconsistent value is a measure of separation between the two clusters whose merge is represented by that node, compared to the separation between subclusters merged within those clusters.
Y = INCONSISTENT(Z, DEPTH) computes inconsistent values by looking to a depth DEPTH below each node.
Y is a (M1)by4 matrix, with rows corresponding to each of the nonleaf nodes represented in Z. INCONSISTENT computes the inconsistent value for node (M+i) using S_i, the set of nodes less than DEPTH branches below node (M+i), excluding any leaf nodes. Then
 Y(i,1) = mean(Z(S_i,3)), the mean height of nodes in S_i
 Y(i,2) = std(Z(S_i,3)), the standard deviation of node heights in S_i
 Y(i,3) = length(S_i), the number of nodes in S_i
 Y(i,4) = (Z(i,3)  Y(i,1))/Y(i,2), the inconsistent value
The default value for DEPTH is 2.
See Also: PDIST, LINKAGE, COPHENET, DENDROGRAM, CLUSTER, CLUSTERDATA.

Parcellation_tools.
mask_princomp
(clusters, varargin)¶ Usage: [clusters] = mask_princomp(clusters,[behavioral score vector],[corr flag],[plotflag],[saveflag])
This function is just like cluster_princomp, except that it works on the SET of activations in all clusters, rather than within each cluster.
clusters is structure of clusters from tor_extract_rois.m
behavioral vector is row vector of behavioral or other scores to correlate
corr flag: 1 = work on correlations among voxels, 2 = work on covariance
plotflag: 1 = yes, 0 = no. plots.
try this to test the program on random data:
cl(1).all_data = randn(23,30);cl(1).numVox = 30;cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1); cl(1).all_data(:,1:10) = cl(1).all_data(:,1:10) + 10; cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1); cl(1).all_data(:,25:30) = cl(1).all_data(:,25:30) + repmat((EXPT.behavior .* 3)',1,6); cl(1).all_data(:,21:24) = cl(1).all_data(:,21:24) + repmat((1:23)',1,4); cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1);
meancenter everything now:
cl.PCA = []; cl.all_data  cl.all_data  repmat(mean(cl.all_data),size(cl.all_data,1),1); cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1);
add another correlated group:
cl.all_data(:,1:5) = cl.all_data(:,1:5) + repmat(rand(23,1)*5,1,5); cl = cluster_princomp(cl,EXPT.behavior,1,1);
if component scores are used and correlated with behavior, this means that the subjects tend to show the behavioral effect who also show the pattern associated with comp. x. this may mean high on a number of voxels, or high on some and low on others. the weights may be used to interpret what the components mean, and this can be done graphically.
ttests on component scores have ambiguous interpretations, because a high tscore may indicate negative values or closetozero values on some voxels. a component could have the interpretation, “high on this component means high on V1 and low on V2.”
classifying voxels is done using cluster analysis (hierarchical, centroid linkage) on the voxels (observations) using the PCA weights (eigenvectors) as variables. This lets the clustering algorithm work in the reduced variable space with dimensionality equal to the number of components. The max number of clusters is restricted based on the gradient of the eigenvalues in the PCA maxclusters = 1 + the number of eigenvalues with gradient at least 20% of the initial drop from 1 to 2 eigenvalues.
Requires clustering library in Matlab. Robust option also uses the robust PCA algorithm RAPCA, created by: Hubert, M., Rousseeuw, P.J., Verboven, S. (2002),
“A fast method for robust principal components with applications to chemometrics”, by Mia Hubert, Peter J. Rousseeuw, Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 60, 101111.

Parcellation_tools.
parcel_cl_nmds
(parcel_cl_avgs)¶ Usage: [parcel_cl_avgs, NMDS, class_clusters] = parcel_cl_nmds(parcel_cl_avgs)
Examples: load Parcellation_info/parcellation.mat [parcel_cl_avgs, NMDS, class_clusters] = parcel_cl_nmds(parcel_cl_avgs) parcel_cl_nmds_plots(parcel_cl_avgs, NMDS, 'save') parcel_cl_nmds_plots(parcel_cl_avgs, NMDS, 'save', 'savedir', 'Parcellation_info')
Complete methods example:  Dimension reduction
Clustering of multivariate data is most stable when the data is not sparse, i.e., the dimensionality is low relative to the number of observations. To limit the dimensionality of the data, a spatiotemporal dimensionreduction step is first performed on the [n x v x N] data matrix of AUC data for n trials x v voxels x N participants (here, n = 48 trials [usually], v = 17,112 voxels , and N = 26 participants). A temporal data reduction is first performed to identify components with correlated AUC trial time series within each participant, followed by a spatial reduction to identify components with correlated spatial patterns across subjects. First, the [n x v] matrix of AUC data for each participant was subjected to PCA, using the [v x v] correlation matrices. Based on the scree plots across subjects, we saved the first 7 eigenvectors (spatial maps). These eigenvectors explained 74 + 2.5% (st. dev. across subjects) of the variance in the full dataset. These eigenvectors were scaled by their variances (eigenvalues) and concatenated across subjects to form an [v x N*7] matrix of eigenvectors. This matrix was subjected to second (across participant) PCA step to identify components with similar spatial maps across participants. We retained 12 eigenvectors (maps) based on the scree plot, which explained 65% of the variance across individuals. Component scores in this space were used for clustering. This is a data reduction step, and the results are not expected to depend strongly on the number of eigenvectors retained at either step, as long as most of the variance in the data is explained.
 Parcellation
Hierarchical agglomerative clustering with average linkage was used to group voxels into parcels–sets of contiguous voxels with similar profiles–in the [v x 12] matrix of component maps. The goal of parcellation was to reduce the space from voxels to parcels (regions) for nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS)based clustering of regions, so that NMDS is computationally tractable. Voxels whose trial AUC time series did not correlate with that of other voxels in the same parcel at p < .001 (in a random effects analysis across participants) were pruned from each parcel. Out of 140 parcels total, 127 parcels with more than 3 voxels after pruning were retained for subsequent analysis.
 NMDS and clustering
Parcels were now treated as the unit of analysis, and the AUC trial time series data were extracted from each parcel for each subject. Values in the [n trials x parcels x N subjects] data matrix were zscored within participant to remove intersubject differences in scaling, then concatenated into an [n*N x parcels] data matrix. Correlations among parcels were converted into a [parcels x parcels] matrix of distances using the formula distance = (1  r) / 2. The NMDS stress plot (which operates on ranked distances and is therefore more robust to outliers and does not require a strictly Euclidean distance space) was examined and 7 dimensions (which explained 79% of the variance in distances) were retained for the final cluster analysis. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering with average linkage was used to cluster the parcels in this space into interconnected networks with correlated AUC trial time series. To choose the number of clusters in the final solution (k), for every possible choice of clusters between k = 2 and 20, we compared the cluster solution to the average and standard deviation of 1,000 clustering iterations with permuted parcel time series. This yielded a Zscore ([actual solution  mean permuted solution] / standard deviation of permuted solution for each value of k. The best solution was k = 13, with a value of Z = 5.57 compared to the nullhypothesis singlecluster solution (p < .0001).

Parcellation_tools.
parcel_cl_nmds_plots
(parcel_cl_avgs, NMDS, varargin)¶ Plot: data panel
case ‘save’, dosave = 1; case {‘savedir’, ‘mysavedir’}, mysavedir = varargin{i+1}; case {‘figs’, ‘dotfigs’}, savedotfigs = 1;
Doc not complete yet. Please update me!
See parcel_clusters.m See parcel_cl_nmds.m
load Parcellation_info/parcellation.mat
Examples: parcel_cl_nmds_plots(parcel_cl_avgs, NMDS, 'save') parcel_cl_nmds_plots(parcel_cl_avgs, NMDS, 'save', 'savedir', 'Parcellation_info') parcel_cl_nmds_plots(parcel_cl_avgs, NMDS, 'save', 'savedir', 'Parcellation_info_tor_mask_try1', 'savedotfig')

Parcellation_tools.
parcel_clusters
(clpos_data, clneg_data)¶ Usage: parcel_clusters(clpos_data, clneg_data)
No outputs. Saves all output in separate directory.
First, get eigenvectors for each subject.
We’re interested obtaining PARCELS of voxels that tend to coactivate, or have the same activation profile.
We can find these by using clustering algorithms to group voxels with similar profiles.
Because we have a many voxel x many voxel covariance matrix for each subject (lots of data!), it’s important to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and peform clustering on a REDUCED_DIMENSIONAL space.
We use PCA to do this. Instead of clustering activation profiles (e.g., timecourses) directly, we cluster eigenvector loadings for each voxel on a reduced set of components that explains most of the variance in the data.
Similar voxels will have similar loadings across the set of eigenvectors. e.g., two voxels may load high on components [1 3 and 5], and low on components [10 and 13]. If they have the same pattern of loadings, they should be considered part of the same CLASS. Groups of voxels that are contiguous in space and are members of the same CLASS are called parcels.
Images and outputs are saved in their own subdirectory called Parcellation_info
The main outputs are: parcel_cl % parcels, one cell per subject, one parcel per
element within cells. same format as clpos_data parcel_cl_avgs % parcels, one parcel per element within cells.
 same format as clpos_data2
parcel_cl_avgs(x).timeseries contains one cell per subject, with data averaged across voxels within that parcel for that subject This kind of output is useful, because you can input it directly into other mediation analyses. [paths, stats2] = mediation(SETUP.data.X, SETUP.data.Y, parcel_cl_avgs(1).timeseries, ‘plots’, ‘verbose’, ‘names’, {‘HiLow Cue’ ‘Pain Report’ ‘Parcel’}, ‘boot’); cluster_orthviews(parcel_cl_avgs(1), {[0 1 0]}, ‘add’);
cd('/Volumes/SCNAlpha/Data_and_Tools/SpeechTask/analysis/wb_multisubject_correl_HR_corrected/mediation_Xprepvsb_Mbrain_Yhr') load cl_b_fdr05_002_01_k3_1_1_prune
then run
 There are 2 dimensionreduction steps:
 withinsubjects
 is on eigenvectors concatenated across subjects

Parcellation_tools.
parcel_complete_sets
(s, varargin)¶ Usage: [mysets,n_in_set,sets_by_vars,classes] = parcel_complete_sets(s,['dounique','nofuzzy'])
Find sets of elements in logical n x n matrix s in which all pairs in set are ‘true’ (1 in matrix s)
Optional: input a distance/correlation/etc. matrix and threshold
Optional Inputs:  ‘dounique’:
provides singlevariable sets as well
 ‘nofuzzy’:
chooses closest set for each var so that each var
can belong to only one set
 ‘threshold’:
followed by threshold thr for matrix s.
if thr is a string, thr will be evaluated on s: e.g., ‘s < 10’
in this case, thr should be a logical expr. involving s
if thr is a number, s >= thr will be evaluated
the resulting logical matrix will be used to determine sets
 ‘min’ or ‘max’:
works only with ‘nofuzzy’ option.
if max, uses max to find most similar set; good if s is a covariance matrix
if min, uses min to find closest set; good if s is a distance matrix
default is max
runs on Matlab 7.2 or higher %%%
Examples: % Find sets of coordinates within 10 mm of one another xyz = cat(1,cl{1}.mm_center); d = pdist(xyz); d = squareform(d); [mysets,n_in_set,sets_by_vars,classes] = parcel_complete_sets(d,'dounique','nofuzzy','threshold','s<10','min');

Parcellation_tools.
parcel_images
(image_names, extract_mask, nuisance_covs)¶ Usage: parcel_images(image_names, extract_mask, nuisance_covs)
This function performs the following steps, in this order
 map mask to functional space
 extract data from inmask voxels
 remove nuisance covariates (before assessing connectivity)
 data reduction (pca)
 plot cases (detect outliers)
 separate data into a priori anatomical regions (LBPA40 hardcoded right now; downloadable from web; see wiki) (save label image mapped to functional space)
 cluster voxels in each region to get parcels
 save parcels and images
 NMDS on the parcels to group them into “networks” (default = use rank data)
 Visualization of the networks
Outputs: Creates and goes to a new directory: parcel_images_output
 Outputs saved to disk include
 An image with unique numerical codes for each parcel
 A ‘clusters’ structure containing the parcels, with image data extracted and averaged over voxels within each parcel
Inputs:  image_names:
names of images to extract data from, and to use for functional parcellation. SEE ALTERNATE FORMAT BELOW FOR DIRECT DATA INPUT
 extract_mask:
a mask image
 nuisance_covs:
columns of a matrix to remove from the data, so that this subspace is not used to determine connectivity
e.g., nuisance_covs = SPM.xX.X(:, 1:3); if these are nuisance covariates...
Alternate input formats for image_names:
If you have data already extracted, image_names can be a structure with these fields:
image_names.V, spm_volstyle volume info for the mask volume and image space image_names.data, extracted data from all valid inmask (nonzero, nonnan) voxels, one column per voxel, in standard matlab (:) order. The mask and the data must match!
peak_coordinates¶

peak_coordinates.
cluster_manova
(clusters, fnames, varargin)¶ Usage: cluster_manova(clusters,fnames,verbose)
Inputs:  clusters:
is output of clusters2database, with all fields from database
 fnames:
is cell array of strings with names to test e.g., {‘Rule’ ‘Task’}
uses stats toolbox
 verbose:
optional, produces more output and tests

peak_coordinates.
extract_ind_peak
(imnames, cl, varargin)¶ This function gets individual spatial peaks from clusters.
Usage: [clusters] = extract_ind_peak(imnames [can be empty],clusters,[vols])
Inputs:  imnames::
a matrix of image names, in spm_list_files output format
if imnames is empty, enter full data (vols) as 3rd argument or else this program will use cl.all_data to get data
 cl:
clusters, see tor_extract_rois
NOTE (WARNING): WORKS ON XYZ VOXEL COORDINATES  NO TRANSFORMATION TO DIFFERENT SPACES see transform_coordinates.m for this.
 Functions called
C:matlabR12toolboxmatlabdatatypessqueeze.m
c:tor_scriptsvoistatutilitynanmean.m (calls other spm functions)
See Also: cluster_manova

peak_coordinates.
image2coordinates
(img)¶ Threshold a statistic image and turn it into a list of x, y, z coordinates (in mm “world space”) with SPM
Usage: XYZmm = image2coordinates(img)
Examples: img = 'h25_aerger.img'; XYZmm = image2coordinates(img) figure; plot3(XYZmm{1}(1, :)', XYZmm{1}(2, :)', XYZmm{1}(3,:)', 'ko'); addbrain axis image
Example with multiple images:
% list all images in dir imgs = filenames(fullfile(pwd, '*img'), 'char', 'absolute') XYZmm = image2coordinates(imgs); % save images names and coordinates % imgs2 has cell array of image names, without full paths imgs2 = filenames(fullfile(pwd, '*img')); save silke_senders_xyz_coordinates imgs imgs2 XYZmm

peak_coordinates.
spatial_contrast
(XYZ1, XYZ2)¶ This function tests relative locations of individual spatial peaks from clusters.
Usage: [str,dcon] = spatial_contrast(XYZ1,XYZ2)
plots position of XYZ2 relative to XYZ1 thus, an ‘anterior’ group position means that XYZ2 peaks are anterior to XYZ1 peaks
Inputs:  XYZ1,2:
n x 3 coordinates (in mm)
Output:  con:
contrast vector, e.g., [1 1]
See help conf_region for details of the test.
ROI_drawing_tools¶

ROI_drawing_tools.
add2mask
(mask, x, r, varargin)¶ Adds or subtracts spheres around x coordinates to/from existing mask
Usage: add2mask(mask, x, r,varargin)
Inputs:  mask:
is a string filename
 x:
is n x 3 list of coordinates
 r:
is radius
a 4th argument causes us to SUBTRACT!
Examples: mask = 'insula_from_part1.img' x = [29.6 28.6 5.3; 37.0 27.5 3.2; 34.9 8.5 14.8;38.1 10.6 14.8]; add2mask(mask,x,8);

ROI_drawing_tools.
clusters2roimask
(cl)¶ The purpose of this function is to facilitate making masks with ROIs for future studies, give a clusters structure. ROIs are constrained to be within activation blobs specified by input clusters, and are masked by selected ICBM regions. Clusters may be smoothed before or after masking.
Usage: [clout] = clusters2roimask(cl)
 Option to do 3 things, in order:
 Enlarge selected clusters
 Mask clusters with anatomical regions from ICBM atlas
 Subdivide clusters using hierarchical clustering of voxel coordinates
Output is a clusters file and a mask file in a 2 x 2 x 2 standard brain space.

ROI_drawing_tools.
draw_anatomical_roi_2008
(meth, varargin)¶ Quick start guide: type draw_anatomical_roi_2008
Usage: draw_anatomical_roi_2008('init'); draw_anatomical_roi_2008('load', 'ROI_midbrain.img'); draw_anatomical_roi_2008('init', 'overlay', 'remi_mean_T2.img');
Inputs: no arguments: init
 ‘init’:
initialize gui and orthviews and remove previous ROI
 ‘load’:
load an ROI from a mask
 ‘free’:
draw an ROI freehand (click on one of the slices in the Slices window 1st)
 ‘poly’:
don’t run this yet
 ‘add’:
add a region you’ve drawn on a slice to your ROI
 ‘remove’:
remove a region you’ve drawn from your ROI
 ‘smooth’:
3d smoothing of ROI
 ‘write’:
write mask image of ROI and return clusters to workspace
 ‘exit’:
exit. ROI data is stored in the Slices figure, so you can continue to edit, etc. after exiting.
Note: You can use cluster_orthviews to image multiple blobs, and then draw relative to those. this function saves it’s data in the Slices figure, so you can draw, reinitialize the orthviews, and keep drawing before you save.
Examples: cluster_orthviews(red, {[1 0 0]}, 'overlay', 'remi_mean_T2.img'); cluster_orthviews(stn, {[0 1 0]}, 'add'); set(findobj('Tag','Graphics'), 'WindowButtonUpFcn', 'draw_anatomical_roi_2008(''moveslice'');'); % Use the spm_orthviews menu to ZOOM IN...and keep drawing!
Example of brainstem ROI drawing:
draw_anatomical_roi_2008('init', 'overlay', 'remi_mean_T2.img'); set(findobj('Tag','Graphics'), 'WindowButtonUpFcn', ''); cluster_orthviews(red, {[1 0 0]}, 'overlay', 'remi_mean_T2.img'); stn = mask2clusters('ROI_STN.img'); cluster_orthviews(stn, {[0 1 1]}, 'add'); % Now zoom in to the midbrain in SPM orthviews and draw new ROIs

ROI_drawing_tools.
sphere_mask
(P, XYZmm, r, outname, varargin)¶ Creates mask images and clusters for a set of spheres defined around coordinates you specify. Used for creating regions of interest (ROIs).
Usage: [clusters,maskCLU] = sphere_mask(fname,XYZmm,r,outname,[maskname],[overlay])
Spheres may be masked with an anatomical mask file.
Inputs:  P:
is input image name with correct dimensions and vox sizes for your study
 XYZmm:
is mm coordinates (row vector) for sphere center
 r:
is radius in mm
 outname:
is string for output mask name, e.g., ‘sphere_mask.img’
 [maskname]:
is optional mask .img containing additional constraints (e.g., gray matter mask, etc.), can be in different dimensions
See Also: mask2clusters, montage_clusters
Examples: tmp = sphere_mask(EXPT.SNPM.P{1}(1,:),[25.6 45.5 77.0],10,'test.img','ICBM_area74.img'); icbm_localize(tmp) M =which('ICBM_brainonly_1mm_seg1.img') cl = sphere_mask(d(1).name,[35 57 54; 23 59 56;13 63 62; 7 77 50; 25 79 30; 23 81 18;41 7 46;37 7 46; 35 1 30; 29 3 60; 29 13 46; 5 1 56;37 29 30; 53 21 32;51 11 4;43 69 14;45 71 12;29 83 4;11 89 4;11 79 2; 1 95 14; 17 99 8;31 77 20;23 81 20;41 71 20;43 79 12],8,'tmp.img',M);
Matlab 6.5/OSX bug gives seg fault or something if mask is too big.
Statistics_tools¶

Statistics_tools.
Bspline
(t, k, u, v, ForceSup)¶ Usage: Bspline(t,k,u[,v])
Create BSpline basis of order k, with knots u, evaluated at t. If control verticies v are specified then then B is the spline function instead of the basis.
u must be at least length(k)+1

Statistics_tools.
ContinuousAccuracy
(obj, pattern, predrange, unit)¶ Calculate forced choice accuracy for unit increases in continuous predictions. Requires units to be ranked ordered from 1:end. Will work for Gianaros or Pain datasets. Accuracies are not penalized for missing cases. Probably best to run this on single subjects and then aggregate accuracies across subjects.
Usage: acc = ContinuousAccuracy(obj, pattern, unit)
Inputs:  obj:
fmri_data() object with data stacked by increasing levels of prediction. Make sure obj.Y includes the training labels
 pattern:
fmri_data() object with weight pattern
 predrange:
specify the range of predictions (e.g., 1:5)
 unit:
specify the unit increase in prediction (e.g., 1 or 2)
Outputs:  acc:
accuracy of prediction for specified units
Examples: acc = ContinuousAccuracy(dat, pine, 1:5, 1)

Statistics_tools.
F_test_full_vs_red
(y, X, Xred, px, pxred)¶ Usage: [F, p, resid, df_model, df_error] = F_test_full_vs_red(y, X, Xred, px, pxred)
Examples: X = randn(100, 3); Xred = X(:,1); y = X(:,2) + randn(100, 1); px = pinv(X); pxred = pinv(Xred); [F, p, resid] = F_test_full_vs_red(y, X, Xred, px, pxred); % Test fullmodel Fvalue against regress.m Xred = X(:,end); % intercept only px = pinv(X); pxred = pinv(Xred); [F, p, resid, dfm, dfe] = F_test_full_vs_red(y, X, Xred, px, pxred); % full model Ftest [b, bint, r, rint, stats] = regress(y, X);

Statistics_tools.
F_test_no_intercept
(X, y, s)¶ Test of the null hypothesis that the ENTIRE regression model X explains no variance in the data (y)
Usage: [Fobs, p, dfb, dfe] = F_test_no_intercept(X,y,s)
Examples: Assess false positive rate with robust regression:
iter = 5000; warning off fvals = zeros(1,iter); pvals = fvals; for i = 1:iter X = randn(10,1); y = randn(10,1); [bb,stats]=robustfit(X,y); % [bb,dev,stats] =glmfit(X,y); [Fobs, p, dfb, dfe] = F_test_no_intercept(X,y,stats.s); fvals(i) = Fobs; pvals(i) = p; end fpr = sum(pvals<.05) ./ iter warning on
Based on: Johnson & Wichern, 5th ed., p. 371, Result 7.6
for a regression model with k predictors, and q regression parameters in reduced model, test the addition of q+1...k by extra sums of squares [n(s2red  s2full) / (kq)] / [n*s2full / (nk1)] ~ F(kq),(nk1)

Statistics_tools.
ICC
(cse, typ, dat)¶  Function to work out ICCs according to shrout & fleiss’ schema (Shrout PE,
Fleiss JL. Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychol Bull. 1979;86:420428).
Usage: iccvalue = ICC([1 to 6],['single' or 'k'], data matrix)
Inputs:  ‘dat’:
is data whose columns represent k different raters (judges) & whose rows represent n different cases or targets being measured. Each target is assumed to be a random sample from a population of targets.
 ‘cse’:
is either 1,2,3. ‘cse’ is: 1 if each target is measured by a different set of raters from a population of raters, 2 if each target is measured by the same raters, but that these raters are sampled from a population of raters, 3 if each target is measured by the same raters and these raters are the only raters of interest.
 ‘typ’:
is either ‘single’ or ‘k’ & denotes whether the ICC is based on a single measurement or on an average of k measurements, where k = the number of ratings/raters.
This has been tested using the example data in the paper by shrout & fleiss.
Example: out = ICC(3,’k’,S_Fdata) returns ICC(3,k) of data ‘S_Fdata’ to double ‘out’.
Kevin Brownhill, Imaging Sciences, KCL, London kevin.brownhill@kcl.ac.uk
Additional documentation: iccvalue = ICC([1 to 6],[‘single’ or ‘k’], data matrix)
Here, columns are ‘judges’, or more generally, ‘measures’ that are usually ideally intercorrelated. Rows are items being assessed. The ICC assesses the proportion of variance attributed to the items,
shared across measures.As the correlation between the measures grows, the icc grows. Another way of saying this is that if the rows are consistently different across measures, the icc will be high.
Think of rows as criminals, and columns as judges. The data values are ‘guilt scores’, where higher is more guilty. If all the judges agree, the most guilty cases will be rated as most guilty by all judges, and the icc will be high. This is actually consistent with Case 2 or 3 in Shrout and Fleiss.
In Case 1, the columns don’t have any real meaning, as there are different ‘judges’ for each row, and variance components due to judge cannot be separated from error and the judge x target interaction. In Case 2 and 3, they are crossed. Case 2 treats judge as a random effect, whereas Case 3 treats judge as a fixed effect.
If the data were an individual differences study of cognitive performance, then the rows would be subjects, and the columns would be tests. A high icc would indicate a high correlation across the tests, which indicates that subjects are reliably different from one another, i.e., that a large proportion of the total variance is related to subject. In such a case, as tests are fixed entities, then Case 3 might be appropriate.
Cronbach’s alpha is equal to ICC(3, k)  case 3, k This assumes no target x rater interaction
Examples: dat = mvnrnd([1 1 1], [1 .5 .5; .5 1 .5; .5 .5 1], 50); whos dat corrcoef(dat) ri = ICC(2, 'k', dat) dat = mvnrnd([1 1 1], [1 .9 .9; .9 1 .9; .9 .9 1], 50); whos dat corrcoef(dat) ri = ICC(2, 'k', dat)
In the example below, judges (measures) have systematically different means, and the ICC values are different. ICC(1, 1) is low because judge is not considered as a source of variance. ICC(2, 1) is higher, but intermediate, because judge is considered as a random effect and modeled, but we want to generalize to new judges. ICC(3, 1) is highest, because judge is modeled
dat = mvnrnd([1 2 3], [1 .5 .5; .5 1 .5; .5 .5 1], 50); whos dat ri = ICC(1, ‘single’, dat) ri = ICC(2, ‘single’, dat) ri = ICC(3, ‘single’, dat)
number of raters/ratings

Statistics_tools.
ancova
(groups, x, y, varargin)¶ Usage: b,t,p,pthandles] = ancova(groups,x,y,[plot],[covs of no interest])
Outputs:  Elements of b, t, p:
1st = intercept, 2nd = group effect, 3rd = slope, 4th = grp x slope interaction
recursive – call ancova repeately if y is a matrix get pairwise standardized slopes (corrs) and group diffs and slope interaction for all pairs of y vectors

Statistics_tools.
barplot_get_within_ste
(dat, varargin)¶ Usage: [se_within, stats] = barplot_get_within_ste(dat)
Compute withinsubjects standard errors
Note: The old version of this used average s.e.’s for contrasts of interest, which depend on contrast scaling and are less appropriate for use as error bars.
The new version as of 12/10 uses the Loftus & Masson 1994 method and has been checked against the data in that paper.
See help below for the L & M data and additional code for getting the ANOVA decomposition.
Useful for barplots of conditions when calculating withinsubject SEs
Examples: %% data from Loftus & Masson, Table 2 mtx = [1 10 13 13 12.00 2 6 8 8 7.33 3 11 14 14 13.00 4 22 23 25 23.33 5 16 18 20 18.00 6 15 17 17 16.33 7 1 1 4 2.00 8 12 15 17 14.67 9 9 12 12 11.00 10 8 9 12 9.67]; dat = mtx(:, 2:4); % data from Loftus & Masson, Table 2 [se_within, stats] = barplot_get_within_ste(dat) fprintf('Within ste: %3.2f, 95%% CI: mean +/ %3.2f\n', se_within, stats.ci);
Extra stuff from ANOVA table
Mean square for condition: Variance of condition means * sample size...average squared variance accounted for by condition means
[n, k] = size(dat); MS_cond = var( mean(dat)  mean(dat(:)) ) * n; MS_subject = var( mean(dat')  mean(dat(:)) ) * k; datv = dat(:); MS_total = scale(datv, 1)' * scale(datv, 1);

Statistics_tools.
bayes_get_probabilities
(Y, Xi, k)¶ Usage: [priors, pa1_given_t, pa0_given_t, pt_given_act1, pt_given_act0, pa1_given_not_t] = bayes_get_probabilities(Y, Xi, k)
Inputs:  k:
is regularization param, biases towards 0.5
 Y:
is data matrix, obs x features, 1/0 (active/not)
 Xi:
is task indicator matrix
This is a subfunction of classify_naive_bayes.m For complete help, see classify_naive_bayes.m

Statistics_tools.
bayes_get_probabilities_2010
(Y, Xi, k)¶ Usage: [priors_Pt, pa1_given_t, pa0_given_t, pt_given_act1, pt_given_act0, pa1_given_not_t] = bayes_get_probabilities_2010(Y, Xi, k)
Inputs:  k:
is regularization param, biases P(activity  task class) towards 0.5
 kY:
is data matrix, obs x features, 1/0 (active/not)
 kXi:
is task indicator matrix
This is a subfunction of classify_naive_bayes.m For complete help, see classify_naive_bayes.m

Statistics_tools.
bayes_meta_feature_abstract
(Y, thresh, shrink, bayes_model, volInfo, doplot)¶ Purpose: Instead of original matrix of activations in studies x voxels, we may want to work with a data matrix of activations in contiguous regions x voxels
This function calculates Y = 0,1 for Y = 1 in any voxel in each contiguous cluster
Examples: reducedY = bayes_meta_feature_abstract(Y, .1, bayes_model, volInfo); xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', reducedY, Xi, 0, 0, bestk, bestg ); xval.prop_correct_by_class
needs bayes_model.pa1_given_t, nclasses, params.k

Statistics_tools.
binotest
(X, p)¶ Test the number of “hits” in each column of X against a nullhypothesis proportion p, using a binomial test.
Usage: RES = binotest(X, p)
Assumes elements of each column of X are independent Bernoulli trials.
Inputs:  X:
is a matrix of “hits” and “misses”, coded as 1s and 0s.
 p:
is the null hypothesis proportion of “hits”, e.g., often p = 0.5

Statistics_tools.
binotest_dependent
(X, Po)¶ This function runs several different types of tests on dependent binomial data.
Usage: [varargout] = binotest_dependent(X, Po)
Overall, it tests the number of “hits” for each subject (row in X) against a nullhypothesis proportion p, across all subjects using a Ztest (twotailed). The second level null hypothesis should be approximated by a normal distribution with a mean of p. This approach assumes that each subject has an equal number of independent Bernoulli trials (columns in X) and that the number of subjects exceeds n=20 the test will be more accurate as n > infinity. Also, calculates tests for each separate trial (e.g., subject columns), and the difference between proportions (two proportion ztest).
Inputs:  X:
X is a matrix of “hits” and “misses”, coded as 1s and 0s. where rows = subjects and columns = observations within subject
 Po:
Po is the null hypothesis proportion of “hits”, e.g., often p = 0.5
Outputs:  RES [1:5]:
a structure containing the output of the stats for the ztest, includes the number of subject (N), number of overall hits (hits), the overall proportion of hits (prop), the standard deviation (SE), zstatistic (Z), and the two tailed pvalue (pval) trial across all subjects. Assumes independence
 RES1:
Independent Single Interval Test for Column 1 (Column 1 only against Po)
 RES2:
Independent Single Interval Test for Column 2 (Column 2 only against Po)
 RES3:
Two proportion dependent difference ztest (Column 1 minus Column 2 against 0)
 RES4:
Dependent singleinterval test (Mean of Column 1 and Column 2 against Po)
 RES5:
 Two proportion dependent addition ztest (Column 1 plus Column 2 against 2 * Po)
(Similar to mean, not sure what this will be used for)
Examples: [RES1, RES2, RES3, RES4, RES5] = binotest_dependent([1,1,1,1,0; 1,0,1,0,1]',.5)

Statistics_tools.
cancor
(X, w, varargin)¶ Usage: [cc,stats] = cancor(X,w,[permutations],[MCD robust outlier removal])
Inputs:  X:
data matrix, columns are variables, rows observations
 w:
first w columns are Set 1, rest are Set 2
 cc:
canonical correlations
 UV:
canonical variates
 UVa:
caonical variates for set a
 UVb:
canonical variates for set b
 ccor:
correlations between canonical variates and X variables
 ab:
weights of canon. variates in row vectors, e.g., U = Xa’
Johnson & Wichern, Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis, 5th ed. tested on examples from the book. cc and ab are right, not positive about ccor
Example: Compute canonical correlations between first 2 and last 2 columns of X, testing against permuted column data with 1000 iterations.
[cc,stats] = cancor(X,2,1000,1);

Statistics_tools.
canlab_connectivity_predict
(dat, subject_grouping, varargin)¶ Connectivity and multivariate patternbased prediction for multisubject timeseries data Currently runs predictive algorithm(s) on pairwise correlations among regions
Usage: OUT = canlab_connectivity_predict(dat, subject_grouping, ['outcome', outcome_dat])
Features:  Withinsubject correlation matrices and ‘random effects’ statistics
 [optional] Prediction with LASSOPCR/SVR/SVM of outcomes from pairwise connectivity
 Timelagged crosscorrelation options
 Graph theoretic measures
 [optional] Prediction with LASSOPCR/SVR/SVM of outcomes from graph measures
 Can easily be extended to handle partial regression/correlation coefficients
Inputs:  dat:
concatenated data matrix of time points (t) within subjects x variables (e.g., ROIs) [subj x time] x [variables]
 subject_grouping:
[subj x time]length integer vector of which observations belong to which subjects, e.g., [1 1 1 ... 2 2 2 ... 3 3 3 ...]’
Optional Inputs:  ‘outcome’:
 followed by outcome data for multivariate prediction. connectivity
values and graph metrics are used to predict outcome data.
 ‘shift_by’:
Followed by integer value for max number of time points to shift
 ‘partialr’:
Use partial correlation instead of raw correlation
Outputs:  OUT:
A structure containing subject correlation matrices, the mean matrix, and raw and FDRthresholded group matrix Also contains matrices with [subjects x variables] pairwise correlation elements and graph metrics
Examples: % Use partial correlations: OUT = canlab_connectivity_predict(dat, subject_grouping, 'partialr'); % Omit graph met OUT = canlab_connectivity_predict(dat, subject_grouping, 'outcome', y, 'nograph');
See also: parcel_cl, parcel_cl_nmds_plots, canlab_force_directed_graph, canlab_connectivity_preproc

Statistics_tools.
classify_bayes
(meth, y, Xi, varargin)¶ Usage: [corrclass, taskclass, realclass, likeratio, m, misclass,ptask,indx,cl] = classify_bayes(meth,y,Xi,[var args])
Inputs:  y:
observations (e.g., studies) x variables (e.g., brain voxels)
y = SOMResults.dat’;
 Xi:
Xi = MC_Setup.Xi(:,1:2);
 meth:
can be: {‘linear’,’diagLinear’,’quadratic’,’diagQuadratic’,’mahalanobis’}
discriminant analysis ‘bayes’ : simple Bayes posterior prob classifier
Optional inputs: Feature selection parameters:
 selectivity_cutoff:
max probability of task given a response in a variable, divided by number of tasks.
1 = variable must exceed .5 for 2 tasks, .2 for 5 tasks, etc.
1.5 = .3 for 5 tasks, .75 for 2 tasks, etc.
0 = no selectivity
 activation_cutoff:
max proportion of studies of some type that produced a response in a variable (e.g., voxel)
.1 is default
0 is no selectivity
Examples: [corrclass, taskclass, realclass, likeratio, m, misclass] = ... classify_bayes('bayes',MC_Setup.unweighted_study_data',Xi,'selectivity_cutoff',1); corrclass [corrclass, taskclass, realclass, likeratio, m, misclass] = classify_bayes('bayes',MC_Setup.unweighted_study_data',Xi,'selectivity_cutoff',1,'activation_cutoff',.08); corrclass
Batch modes: Permutation test: input ‘permtest’ followed by number of permutations Do not request more than one output variable [corrclass_nullhyp] = classify_bayes(‘bayes’,dat,Xi,’selectivity_cutoff’,1.8,’activation_cutoff’,.02,’permtest’,5);
To get mask index of which areas meet feature selection: whsave = sum(indx > 0, 2) > 0;
select features first, instead of in xvalidation (makes xval invalid; don’t do it)

Statistics_tools.
classify_choose_most_likely
(ptask, testvec)¶ Usage: [taskclass,maxlike,likeratio, taskprob] = classify_choose_most_likely(ptask,testvec)
Inputs:  ptask:
likelihood of each task given activation, p(task  activation) classses x variables (features, brain voxels)
 testvec:
activation values across features variables x 1
Output:  taskclass:
integer for which is max likelihood class
 maxlike :
 log likelihood of chosen class given data (if testvec is 1/0
indicator)
 likeratio :
likelihood ratio for most likely vs. least likely class
Examples: % voxels in original image space that were in dataset whsave = sum(indx > 0, 2) > 0; [tc, ml, lr] = classify_choose_most_likely(ptask, MC_Setup.unweighted_study_data(whsave,1))

Statistics_tools.
classify_naive_bayes
(meth, varargin)¶ Naive Bayes classifier
Usage: % set up model structure bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('setup', Y, Xi, [activation_cutoff, selectivity_cutoff]);
Inputs:  Y:
is full (not sparse); empty features will be eliminated
 Xi:
is obs x classes, an indicator matrix of 1’s and 0’s
TEST: test classifier; make a prediction about classes from data
[class_est log_joint best_log map p_obs_act_given_class] = classify_naive_bayes('test', Y, bayes_model);
EVAL: evaluate classification accuracy [prop_correct, confusion_mtx, misclass, prop_correct_by_class, chance, chance_95_ci] = classify_naive_bayes('eval', true_class, class_est, wh_obs);
APPARENT: apparent classification; with full dataset bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('apparent', Y, bayes_model);
XVAL: crossvalidate xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi); bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('write', bayes_model, Y, volInfo, conditionnames) bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('write', bayes_model, Y, MC_Setup.volInfo, MC_Setup.Xinms);
To add feature abstraction step within xval:
xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi, 0, .9, .05, 1, volInfo );
PLOT: classify_naive_bayes('plot', bayes_model, ['pat', 'lr', 'lr surface', 'map plot', or 'class plot']);
Optional Inputs: (any order) Threshold (abs. value), and colors in cell array
classify_naive_bayes('plot', bayes_model, 'lr', .10, {[1 .7 0] [0 0 1]});
Examples: [bayes_model, Y] = classify_naive_bayes('setup', Y, Xi); % Test obs. 2 tic, [class_est log_joint best_log map] = classify_naive_bayes('test',Y(2,:), bayes_model); toc % Get apparent classification rate and look at confusion matrix tic, bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('apparent', Y, bayes_model); toc bayes_model.apparent.confusion_mtx % Crossvalidate bayes_model.xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi); bayes_model.xval.confusion_mtx
Example 2: Select features, and do apparent and crossvalidated classification Y = MC_Setup.unweighted_study_data'; wh = sum(Y) > 5; Y = Y(:, wh); whos Y [bayes_model, Y] = classify_naive_bayes('setup', Y, Xi); bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('apparent', Y, bayes_model); bayes_model.apparent.prop_correct, bayes_model.apparent.confusion_mtx bayes_model.xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi); bayes_model.xval.prop_correct, bayes_model.xval.confusion_mtx
Example 3: create_figure(‘hist’); hist(bayes_model.pa1_given_t, 100); xval = classify_naive_bayes(‘xval’, Y, Xi, .05, .3); Get results from key regions and run classifier only on those regions:
cl = classify_naive_bayes('plot', bayes_model, 'lr', .10, {[1 .7 0] [0 0 1]}); [studybyroi,studybyset] = Meta_cluster_tools('getdata',cl{1},dat',volInfo); bayes_model_regions = classify_naive_bayes('setup', studybyroi, Xi); bayes_model_regions = classify_naive_bayes('apparent', studybyroi,bayes_model_regions); disp('Apparent confusion') disp(bayes_model_regions.apparent.confusion_mtx) bayes_model_regions.xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', studybyroi, Xi); disp('Crossvalidated confusion') disp(bayes_model_regions.xval.confusion_mtx) fprintf('Proportion correct: Apparent: %3.0f%% Xval: %3.0f%%\n', 100*bayes_model_regions.apparent.prop_correct, 100*bayes_model_regions.xval.prop_correct); fprintf('Proportion correct by class: \t'); fprintf('%3.0f%%\t', 100*bayes_model_regions.xval.prop_correct_by_class); fprintf('\n'); sz = cat(1,cl{1}(:).numVox); cl{1}(sz < 10) = []; subcl = subclusters_from_local_max(cl{1}, 10);

Statistics_tools.
classify_naive_bayes_2010
(meth, varargin)¶ Naive Bayes classifier
Usage: % set up model structure bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('setup', Y, Xi, [activation_cutoff, selectivity_cutoff]);
Inputs:  Y:
is full (not sparse); empty features will be eliminated
 Xi:
is obs x classes, an indicator matrix of 1’s and 0’s
TEST: test classifier; make a prediction about classes from data
[class_est log_joint best_log map p_obs_act_given_class] = classify_naive_bayes('test', Y, bayes_model);
EVAL: evaluate classification accuracy [prop_correct, confusion_mtx, misclass, prop_correct_by_class, chance, chance_95_ci] = classify_naive_bayes('eval', true_class, class_est, wh_obs);
APPARENT: apparent classification; with full dataset bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('apparent', Y, bayes_model);
XVAL: crossvalidate xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi); bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('write', bayes_model, Y, volInfo, conditionnames) bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('write', bayes_model, Y, MC_Setup.volInfo, MC_Setup.Xinms);
To add feature abstraction step within xval:
xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi, 0, .9, .05, 1, volInfo );
:PLOT
classify_naive_bayes('plot', bayes_model, ['pat', 'lr', 'lr surface', 'map plot', or 'class plot']);
Optional Inputs: (any order) Threshold (abs. value), and colors in cell array
classify_naive_bayes('plot', bayes_model, 'lr', .10, {[1 .7 0] [0 0 1]});
Examples: [bayes_model, Y] = classify_naive_bayes('setup', Y, Xi); % Test obs. 2 tic, [class_est log_joint best_log map] = classify_naive_bayes('test',Y(2,:), bayes_model); toc % Get apparent classification rate and look at confusion matrix tic, bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('apparent', Y, bayes_model); toc bayes_model.apparent.confusion_mtx % Crossvalidate bayes_model.xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi); bayes_model.xval.confusion_mtx
Example 2: Select features, and do apparent and crossvalidated classification
Y = MC_Setup.unweighted_study_data'; wh = sum(Y) > 5; Y = Y(:, wh); whos Y [bayes_model, Y] = classify_naive_bayes('setup', Y, Xi); bayes_model = classify_naive_bayes('apparent', Y, bayes_model); bayes_model.apparent.prop_correct, bayes_model.apparent.confusion_mtx bayes_model.xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi); bayes_model.xval.prop_correct, bayes_model.xval.confusion_mtx
Example 3:
create_figure('hist'); hist(bayes_model.pa1_given_t, 100); xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', Y, Xi, .05, .3);
Get results from key regions and run classifier only on those regions:
cl = classify_naive_bayes('plot', bayes_model, 'lr', .10, {[1 .7 0] [0 0 1]}); [studybyroi,studybyset] = Meta_cluster_tools('getdata',cl{1},dat',volInfo); bayes_model_regions = classify_naive_bayes('setup', studybyroi, Xi); bayes_model_regions = classify_naive_bayes('apparent', studybyroi,bayes_model_regions); disp('Apparent confusion') disp(bayes_model_regions.apparent.confusion_mtx) bayes_model_regions.xval = classify_naive_bayes('xval', studybyroi, Xi); disp('Crossvalidated confusion') disp(bayes_model_regions.xval.confusion_mtx) fprintf('Proportion correct: Apparent: %3.0f%% Xval: %3.0f%%\n', 100*bayes_model_regions.apparent.prop_correct, 100*bayes_model_regions.xval.prop_correct); fprintf('Proportion correct by class: \t'); fprintf('%3.0f%%\t', 100*bayes_model_regions.xval.prop_correct_by_class); fprintf('\n'); sz = cat(1,cl{1}(:).numVox); cl{1}(sz < 10) = []; subcl = subclusters_from_local_max(cl{1}, 10);

Statistics_tools.
classify_naive_bayes_objfun
(dat, Xi, volInfo, a, s, g, k, t, h)¶ Usage: goodness = classify_naive_bayes_objfun(dat, Xi, volInfo, 0, .9, 1, .05, .1, .1);
Examples: objfun = @(t, h) classify_naive_bayes_objfun(dat, Xi, volInfo, 0, .9, 1, .05, t, h); goodness = objfun(.1, .1)

Statistics_tools.
classify_viz_regions
(indx, colors, ptaskcutoff, sizecutoff, maskimage, names)¶ Visualize output of classify_bayes.m, or comparable output
Usage: cl = classify_viz_regions(indx,colors,ptaskcutoff,sizecutoff,maskimage,names)
indx should be voxels x images, with prob task (ptask) in nonzero elements
Examples: cl = classify_viz_regions(indx,[],.6,5); cl = classify_viz_regions(indx,[],.6,5,[],names);

Statistics_tools.
contrast_code
(vec)¶ Usage: [vec,outnames] = contrast_code(vec)
Changes values to 1, 1, or 0 for contrast coding

Statistics_tools.
correl_compare_dep
(y1, y2, varargin)¶ Compare dependent correlations between pairs of vectors in y1 and y2.
Usage: out = correl_compare_dep(y1,y2,['alpha',myalpha],['rank'],['table'])
Each of y1 and y2 would contain at least 2 columns, which would be correlated and saved in r1 and r2 matrices in output. Then, the r1 and r2 matrices are subtracted, and Pvalues are returned for the differences.
 In the simplest case, y1 would contain vectors [a b] and y2 would contain vectors [a c]. tests are provided on the ab vs. ac difference in correlations.
Repeats dep. correl. analysis for each pair of columns
Returns results in correlation matrix form, where number of rows and cols. are the number of pairs [y1(:,i) y2(:,i)]
myalpha is 2tailed alpha value; pvalues are 2tailed FDR correction is at .01, 2tailed
Based on Steiger, 1980, tests for comparing dependent correlations.
Examples: for i = 1:length(cl), y1(:,i) = cl.CONTRAST.data(:,2); y2(:,i) = cl.CONTRAST.data(:,1); end for i = 1:length(cl), y1(:,i) = cl(i).CONTRAST.data(:,2); y2(:,i) = cl(i).CONTRAST.data(:,1); end % y1 is matrix of obs x data vectors for condition 1 % y2 is matrix of obs x data vectors for condition 2 out = correl_compare_dep(y1,y2) figure('Color','w');nmdsfig(c.GroupSpace,c.ClusterSolution.classes, ... c.names,out.sig,1,{'Pos' 'Neg'}); nmdsfig_legend(c.ClusterSolution.X,c.r)
Examples: c_compare = correl_compare_dep(y1avg,y2avg,'alpha',.05,'rank','table','names',c.APPLY_CLUSTER.names); out = correl_compare_dep([ypred pain],[ypred temp], 'alpha', .06, 'table', 'names', {'biomarker resp' 'pain or temp'});

Statistics_tools.
correl_compare_dep_permtest
(y1, y2, varargin)¶ Compare dependent correlations between pairs of vectors in y1 and y2
Usage: out = correl_compare_dep_permtest(y1,y2,['alpha',myalpha],['rank'],['table'])
PERMUTATION TEST: for correl_compare_dep Repeats dep. correl. analysis for each pair of columns Returns results in correlation matrix form, where number of rows and cols. are the number of pairs [y1(:,i) y2(:,i)]
myalpha is 2tailed alpha value; pvalues are 2tailed FDR correction is at .01, 2tailed
Based on Steiger, 1980, tests for comparing dependent correlations.
Examples: for i = 1:length(cl), y1(:,i) = cl.CONTRAST.data(:,2); y2(:,i) = cl.CONTRAST.data(:,1); end for i = 1:length(cl), y1(:,i) = cl(i).CONTRAST.data(:,2); y2(:,i) = cl(i).CONTRAST.data(:,1); end y1 is matrix of obs x data vectors for condition 1 y2 is matrix of obs x data vectors for condition 2 out = correl_compare_dep(y1,y2) figure('Color','w');nmdsfig(c.GroupSpace,c.ClusterSolution.classes, ... c.names,out.sig,1,{'Pos' 'Neg'}); nmdsfig_legend(c.ClusterSolution.X,c.r) % compare correlations on cluster averages c_compare = correl_compare_dep(y1avg,y2avg,'alpha',.05,'rank','table','names',c.APPLY_CLUSTER.names);

Statistics_tools.
correl_compare_dep_search
(seed1, seed2, y1, y2, varargin